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Familial Cancer

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 451–456 | Cite as

Younger age-at-diagnosis for familial malignant testicular germ cell tumor

  • Phuong L. MaiEmail author
  • Bingshu E. Chen
  • Kathy Tucker
  • Michael Friedlander
  • Kelly-Anne Phillips
  • David Hogg
  • Michael A. S. Jewett
  • Istvan Bodrogi
  • Lajos Geczi
  • Edith Olah
  • Ketil Heimdal
  • Sophie D. Fosså
  • Katherine L. Nathanson
  • Larissa Korde
  • Douglas F. Easton
  • Darshna Dudakia
  • Robert Huddart
  • Michael R. Stratton
  • D. Timothy Bishop
  • Elizabeth A. Rapley
  • Mark H. Greene
Article

Abstract

One of the clinical hallmarks of hereditary cancer susceptibility disorders is a younger-than-usual age at diagnosis. Familial aggregation of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) has been reported, but data on whether familial TGCT cases are diagnosed at an earlier age are inconclusive. Here we compared the age at diagnosis of familial TGCT cases with that of population cases in several countries. Familial TGCT is defined as affected individuals from families with ≥2 cases of TGCT. Age at diagnosis of familial cases from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, Norway, and Hungary was compared to cases identified in population-based cancer registries from the respective country, using the generalized estimation equation method. Age at diagnosis was statistically significantly younger for familial TGCT cases from North America (P = 0.024), the United Kingdom (P < 0.0001), and Australia and New Zealand (P = 0.0033) compared with population cases. When stratified by histology, the difference in age at diagnosis distribution between familial and population cases was observed for seminoma cases from North America (P = 0.002) and the United Kingdom (P < 0.0001) and non-seminoma cases from the United Kingdom (P = 0.029) and Australia and New Zealand (P = 0.0023). In summary, we found that the age at diagnosis for familial TGCT cases is, on the average, 2–3 years younger than that for the population cases in North America, United Kingdom, and Australia and New Zealand. The younger age at diagnosis might be suggestive of a genetic basis for familial TGCT.

Keywords

Age at diagnosis Familial Non-seminoma Population-based testicular cancer Seminoma Testicular germ cell tumor 

Abbreviations

ITCLC

International testicular cancer linkage consortium

TGCT

Testicular germ cell tumor

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr. Parry Guilford for his contribution to the familial TGCT cases. We also thank Istvan Gaudi (Cancer Registry of National Institute of Oncology, Budapest, Hungary) and Sue Westlake (Social & Health Analysis & Reporting Division, Office for National Statistics, UK) for their contribution from the cancer registries. This research was funded in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and supported by contracts N02-CP-11019 and N02-CP-65504 with Westat, Incorporated. The authors have no conflict of interest or financial disclosures to report.

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Copyright information

© U.S. Government 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phuong L. Mai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bingshu E. Chen
    • 2
  • Kathy Tucker
    • 3
  • Michael Friedlander
    • 3
  • Kelly-Anne Phillips
    • 4
  • David Hogg
    • 5
  • Michael A. S. Jewett
    • 5
  • Istvan Bodrogi
    • 6
  • Lajos Geczi
    • 6
  • Edith Olah
    • 6
  • Ketil Heimdal
    • 7
    • 8
  • Sophie D. Fosså
    • 7
    • 8
  • Katherine L. Nathanson
    • 9
  • Larissa Korde
    • 1
  • Douglas F. Easton
    • 10
  • Darshna Dudakia
    • 11
  • Robert Huddart
    • 12
  • Michael R. Stratton
    • 11
  • D. Timothy Bishop
    • 13
  • Elizabeth A. Rapley
    • 11
  • Mark H. Greene
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical Genetics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer InstituteRockvilleUSA
  2. 2.NCIC, Clinical Trials GroupQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Medical Oncology, Division of Medicine, Prince of Wales HospitalUniversity of New South WalesRandwickAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Haematology and Medical OncologyPeter MacCallum Cancer CentreEast MelbourneAustralia
  5. 5.Princess Margaret Hospital, University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  6. 6.Department of Chemotherapy and Molecular GeneticsNational Institute of OncologyBudapestHungary
  7. 7.Department of Clinical Cancer ResearchRikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet University HospitalOsloNorway
  8. 8.Department Medical GeneticsRikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet University HospitalOsloNorway
  9. 9.Division of Medical Genetics, Department of MedicineUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  10. 10.CRC Genetic Epidemiology UnitStrangeways Research LaboratoryCambridgeUK
  11. 11.Section of Cancer GeneticsInstitute of Cancer ResearchSuttonUK
  12. 12.Academic Radiotherapy UnitInstitute of Cancer ResearchBelmont, SuttonUK
  13. 13.Imperial Cancer Research Fund Genetic Epidemiology LabSt. James’s University HospitalLeedsUK

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