Advertisement

Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 25–48 | Cite as

A robotic pipeline for fast GRB followup with the Las Cumbrés observatory network

  • R. MartoneEmail author
  • C. Guidorzi
  • C. G. Mundell
  • S. Kobayashi
  • A. Cucchiara
  • A. Gomboc
  • N. Jordana
  • T. Laskar
  • M. Marongiu
  • D. C. Morris
  • R. J. Smith
  • I. A. Steele
Original Article

Abstract

In the era of multi-messenger astronomy the exploration of the early emission from transients is key for understanding the encoded physics. At the same time, current generation networks of fully-robotic telescopes provide new opportunities in terms of fast followup and sky coverage. This work describes our pipeline designed for robotic optical followup of gamma-ray bursts with the Las Cumbrés Observatory network. We designed a Python code to promptly submit observation requests to the Las Cumbrés Observatory network within 3 minutes of the receipt of the socket notice. Via Telegram the pipeline keeps the users informed, allowing them to take control upon request. Our group was able to track the early phases of the evolution of the optical output from gamma-ray bursts with a fully-robotic procedure and here we report the case of GRB180720B as an example. The developed pipeline represents a key ingredient for any reliable and rapid (minutes timescale) robotic telescope system. While successfully utilized and adapted for LCO, it can also be adapted to any other robotic facilities.

Keywords

GRB LCO Telegram 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Leo Singer for his help and support in the developing of the code. Support for this work was provided by Università di Ferrara through grant FIR 2018 “A Broad-band study of Cosmic Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt and Afterglow Emission” (PI Guidorzi).

References

  1. 1.
    Klebesadel, R.W., Strong, I.B., Olson, R.A.: . Astrophys. J. Lett. 182, L85 (1973).  https://doi.org/10.1086/181225 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Woosley, S.E.: Models for gamma-ray burst progenitors and central engines (gamma-ray bursts). Cambridge Astrophys. Series 51, 191 (2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lipunov, V.M., Postnov, K.A., Prokhorov, M.E., Panchenko, I.E., Jorgensen, H.E.: . Astrophys. J. 454, 593 (1995).  https://doi.org/10.1086/176512 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abbott, B.P., Abbott, R., Abbott, T.D., Acernese, F., Ackley, K., Adams, C., Adams, T., Addesso, P., Adhikari, R.X., Adya, V.B., et al: . Astrophys. J. Lett. 848, L12 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa91c9 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eichler, D., Livio, M., Piran, T., Schramm, D.N.: . Nature 340, 126 (1989).  https://doi.org/10.1038/340126a0 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Paczynski, B.: . Acta Astronomica 41, 257 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Narayan, R., Paczynski, B., Piran, T.: . ApJ 395, L83 (1992).  https://doi.org/10.1086/186493 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    van Paradijs, J., Groot, P.J., Galama, T., Kouveliotou, C., Strom, R.G., Telting, J., Rutten, R.G.M., Fishman, G.J., Meegan, C.A., Pettini, M., Tanvir, N., Bloom, J., Pedersen, H., Nørdgaard-Nielsen, H.U., Linden-Vørnle, M., Melnick, J., Van der Steene, G., Bremer, M., Naber, R., Heise, J., in’t Zand, J., Costa, E., Feroci, M., Piro, L., Frontera, F., Zavattini, G., Nicastro, L., Palazzi, E., Bennett, K., Hanlon, L., Parmar, A.: . Nature 386, 686 (1997).  https://doi.org/10.1038/386686a0 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Akerlof, C., Balsano, R., Barthelmy, S., Bloch, J., Butterworth, P., Casperson, D., Cline, T., Fletcher, S., Frontera, F., Gisler, G., Heise, J., Hills, J., Kehoe, R., Lee, B., Marshall, S., McKay, T., Miller, R., Piro, L., Priedhorsky, W., Szymanski, J., Wren, J.: . Nature 398(6726), 400 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1038/18837 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gehrels, N., Chincarini, G., Giommi, P., Mason, K.O., Nousek, J.A., Wells, A.A., White, N.E., Barthelmy, S.D., Burrows, D.N., Cominsky, L.R., Hurley, K.C., Marshall, F.E., Mészáros, P., Roming, P.W.A., Angelini, L., Barbier, L.M., Belloni, T., Campana, S., Caraveo, P.A., Chester, M.M., Citterio, O., Cline, T.L., Cropper, M.S., Cummings, J.R., Dean, A.J., Feigelson, E.D., Fenimore, E.E., Frail, D.A., Fruchter, A.S., Garmire, G.P., Gendreau, K., Ghisellini, G., Greiner, J., Hill, J.E., Hunsberger, S.D., Krimm, H.A., Kulkarni, S.R., Kumar, P., Lebrun, F., Lloyd-Ronning, N.M., Markwardt, C.B., Mattson, B.J., Mushotzky, R.F., Norris, J.P., Osborne, J., Paczynski, B., Palmer, D.M., Park, H.S., Parsons, A.M., Paul, J., Rees, M.J., Reynolds, C.S., Rhoads, J.E., Sasseen, T.P., Schaefer, B.E., Short, A.T., Smale, A.P., Smith, I.A., Stella, L., Tagliaferri, G., Takahashi, T., Tashiro, M., Townsley, L.K., Tueller, J., Turner, M.J.L., Vietri, M., Voges, W., Ward, M.J., Willingale, R., Zerbi, F.M., Zhang, W.W.: . ApJ 611, 1005 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1086/422091 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Akerlof, C.W., Kehoe, R.L., McKay, T.A., Rykoff, E.S., Smith, D.A., Casperson, D.E., McGowan, K.E., Vestrand, W.T., Wozniak, P.R., Wren, J.A., Ashley, M.C.B., Phillips, M.A., Marshall, S.L., Epps, H.W., Schier, J.A.: . Publ. ASP 115(803), 132 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1086/345490 ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lipunov, V., Kornilov, V., Gorbovskoy, E., Shatskij, N., Kuvshinov, D., Tyurina, N., Belinski, A., Krylov, A., Balanutsa, P., Chazov, V., Kuznetsov, A., Kortunov, P., Sankovich, A., Tlatov, A., Parkhomenko, A., Krushinsky, V., Zalozhnyh, I., Popov, A., Kopytova, T., Ivanov, K., Yazev, S., Yurkov, V.: . Adv. Astron. 2010, 349171 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/349171 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Boër, M., Bringer, M., Klotz, A., Moly, A.M., Toublanc, D., Calvet, G., Eysseric, J., Leroy, A., Meissonnier, M., Malina, R., Sanchez, P., Pollas, C., Pedersen, H.: . Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 579 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1051/aas:1999356 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Castro-Tirado, A.J., Soldán, J., Bernas, M., Páta, P., Rezek, T., Hudec, R., Mateo Sanguino, T.J., de La Morena, B., Berná, J.A., Rodríguez, J., Peña, A., Gorosabel, J., Más-Hesse, J.M., Giménez, A.: . Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, 583 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1051/aas:1999362 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Steele, I.A., Smith, R.J., Rees, P.C., Baker, I.P., Bates, S.D., Bode, M.F., Bowman, M.K., Carter, D., Etherton, J., Ford, M.J., Fraser, S.N., Gomboc, A., Lett, R.D.J., Mansfield, A.G., Marchant, J.M., Medrano-Cerda, G.A., Mottram, C.J., Raback, D., Scott, A.B., Tomlinson, M.D., Zamanov, R. In: Oschmann, J.M. Jr. (ed.) Ground-based Telescopes, Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 5489, pp 679–692 (2004),  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.551456
  16. 16.
    Tsapras, Y., Street, R., Horne, K., Snodgrass, C., Dominik, M., Allan, A., Steele, I., Bramich, D.M., Saunders, E.S., Rattenbury, N., Mottram, C., Fraser, S., Clay, N., Burgdorf, M., Bode, M., Lister, T.A., Hawkins, E., Beaulieu, J.P., Fouqué, P., Albrow, M., Menzies, J., Cassan, A., Dominis-Prester, D.: . Astronomische Nachrichten 330, 4 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.200811130 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lewis, F., Street, R., Roche, P., Stroud, V., Russell, D.M.: . Adv. Astron. 2010, 873059 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/873059 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Monfardini, A., Kobayashi, S., Guidorzi, C., Carter, D., Mundell, C.G., Bersier, D.F., Gomboc, A., Melandri, A., Mottram, C.J., Smith, R.J., Steele, I.A.: . Astrophys. J. 648, 1125 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1086/506170 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mundell, C.G., Melandri, A., Guidorzi, C., Kobayashi, S., Steele, I.A., Malesani, D., Amati, L., D’Avanzo, P., Bersier, D.F., Gomboc, A., Rol, E., Bode, M.F., Carter, D., Mottram, C.J., Monfardini, A., Smith, R.J., Malhotra, S., Wang, J., Bannister, N., O’Brien, P.T., Tanvir, N.R.: . ApJ 660, 489 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1086/512605 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Melandri, A., Mundell, C.G., Kobayashi, S., Guidorzi, C., Gomboc, A., Steele, I.A., Smith, R.J., Bersier, D., Mottram, C.J., Carter, D., Bode, M.F., O’Brien, P.T., Tanvir, N.R., Rol, E., Chapman, R.: . ApJ 686, 1209 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1086/591243 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Virgili, F.J., Mundell, C.G., Pal’shin, V., Guidorzi, C., Margutti, R., Melandri, A., Harrison, R., Kobayashi, S., Chornock, R., Henden, A., Updike, A.C., Cenko, S.B., Tanvir, N.R., Steele, I.A., Cucchiara, A., Gomboc, A., Levan, A., Cano, Z., Mottram, C.J., Clay, N.R., Bersier, D., Kopač, D., Japelj, J., Filippenko, A.V., Li, W., Svinkin, D., Golenetskii, S., Hartmann, D.H., Milne, P.A., Williams, G., O’Brien, P.T., Fox, D.B., Berger, E.: . ApJ 778, 54 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/778/1/54 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kopač, D., Mundell, C.G., Japelj, J., Arnold, D.M., Steele, I.A., Guidorzi, C., Dichiara, S., Kobayashi, S., Gomboc, A., Harrison, R.M., Lamb, G.P., Melandri, A., Smith, R.J., Virgili, F.J., Castro-Tirado, A.J., Gorosabel, J., Järvinen, A., Sánchez-Ramírez, R., Oates, S.R., Jelínek, M: . ApJ 813, 1 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/813/1/1 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gomboc, A., Kobayashi, S., Guidorzi, C., Melandri, A., Mangano, V., Sbarufatti, B., Mundell, C.G., Schady, P., Smith, R.J., Updike, A.C., Kann, D.A., Misra, K., Rol, E., Pozanenko, A., Castro-Tirado, A.J., Anupama, G.C., Bersier, D., Bode, M.F., Carter, D., Curran, P., Fruchter, A., Graham, J., Hartmann, D.H., Ibrahimov, M., Levan, A., Monfardini, A., Mottram, C.J., O’Brien, P.T., Prema, P., Sahu, D.K., Steele, I.A., Tanvir, N.R., Wiersema, K.: . ApJ 687, 443 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1086/592062 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gomboc, A., Kobayashi, S., Mundell, C.G., Guidorzi, C., Melandri, A., Steele, I.A., Smith, R.J., Bersier, D., Carter, D., Bode, M.F. In: Meegan, C., Kouveliotou, C., Gehrels, N. (eds.) American Institute of Physics Conference Series, American Institute of Physics Conference Series, vol. 1133, pp 145–150 (2009),  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3155867
  25. 25.
    Japelj, J., Kopač, D., Kobayashi, S., Harrison, R., Guidorzi, C., Virgili, F.J., Mundell, C.G., Melandri, A., Gomboc, A.: . ApJ 785, 84 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/785/2/84 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Laskar, T., Alexander, K.D., Berger, E., Fong, W.f., Margutti, R., Shivvers, I., Wlliams, P.K.G, Kopač, D., Kobayashi, S., Mundell, C., Gomboc, A., Zheng, W., Menten, K.M., Graham, M.L., Filippenko, A.V.: . Astrophys. J. 833, 88 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/833/1/88 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Laskar, T., Alexander, K.D., Berger, E., Guidorzi, C., Margutti, R., Fong, W.f., Kilpatrick, C.D., Milne, P., Drout, M.R., Mundell, C.G., Kobayashi, S., Lunnan, R., Barniol Duran, R., Menten, K.M., Ioka, K., W.lliams, P.K.G: . Astrophys. J. 862, 94 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aacbcc ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mundell, C.G., Steele, I.A., Smith, R.J., Kobayashi, S., Melandri, A., Guidorzi, C., Gomboc, A., Mottram, C.J., Clarke, D., Monfardini, A., Carter, D., Bersier, D.: . Science 315, 1822 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1138484 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Steele, I.A., Mundell, C.G., Smith, R.J., Kobayashi, S., Guidorzi, C.: . Nature 462, 767 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08590 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mundell, C.G., Kopac, D., Arnold, D.M., Steele, I.A., Gomboc, A., Kobayashi, S., Harrison, R.M., Smith, R.J., Guidorzi, C., Virgili, F.J., Melandri, A., Japelj, J.: . Nature 504, 119 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12814 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Troja, E., Lipunov, V.M., Mundell, C.G., Butler, N.R., Watson, A.M., Kobayashi, S., Cenko, S.B., Marshall, F.E., Ricci, R., Fruchter, A., Wieringa, M.H., Gorbovskoy, E.S., Kornilov, V., Kutyrev, A., Lee, W.H., Toy, V., Tyurina, N.V., Budnev, N.M., Buckley, D.A.H., González, J., Gress, O., Horesh, A., Panasyuk, M.I., Prochaska, J.X., Ramirez-Ruiz, E., Rebolo Lopez, R., Richer, M.G., Roman-Zuniga, C., Serra-Ricart, M., Yurkov, V., Gehrels, N.: . Nature 547, 425 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature23289 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Guidorzi, C., Monfardini, A., Gomboc, A., Mottram, C.J., Mundell, C.G., Steele, I.A., Carter, D., Bode, M.F., Smith, R.J., Fraser, S.N., Burgdorf, M.J., Newsam, A.M.: . PASP 118, 288 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1086/499289 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mundell, C.G., Guidorzi, C., Steele, I.A.: . Adv. Astron. 2010, 718468 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/718468 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brown, T.M., Baliber, N., Bianco, F.B., Bowman, M., Burleson, B., Conway, P., Crellin, M., Depagne, É., De Vera, J., Dilday, B., Dragomir, D., Dubberley, M., Eastman, J.D., Elphick, M., Falarski, M., Foale, S., Ford, M., Fulton, B.J., Garza, J., Gomez, E.L., Graham, M., Greene, R., Haldeman, B., Hawkins, E., Haworth, B., Haynes, R., Hidas, M., Hjelstrom, A.E., Howell, D.A., Hygelund, J., Lister, T.A., Lobdill, R., Martinez, J., Mullins, D.S., Norbury, M., Parrent, J., Paulson, R., Petry, D.L., Pickles, A., Posner, V., Rosing, W.E., Ross, R., Sand, D.J., Saunders, E.S., Shobbrook, J., Shporer, A., Street, R.A., Thomas, D., Tsapras, Y., Tufts, J.R., Valenti, S., Vander Horst, K., Walker, Z., White, G., Willis, M.: . Publ. ASP 125, 1031 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1086/673168 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lavigne, J.M., Jean, P., Kandel, B., Borrel, V., Roques, J.P., Lichti, G., Schönfelder, V., Diehl, R., Georgii, R., Kirchner, T., Durouchoux, P., Cordier, B., Diallo, N., Sanchez, F., Payne, B., Leleux, P., Caraveo, P., Teegarden, B., Matteson, J., Slassi-Sennou, S., Skinner, G., Connell, P.: . Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl. 60, 69 (1998).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-5632(97)00502-1 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barthelmy, S.D., Butterworth, P., Cline, T.L., Gehrels, N., Fishman, G.J., Kouveliotou, C., Meegan, C.A.: . Astrophys. Space Sci. 231(1–2), 235 (1995).  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00658623 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schlegel, D.J., Finkbeiner, D.P., Davis, M.: . ApJ 500, 525 (1998).  https://doi.org/10.1086/305772 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Siegel, M., Burrows, D., Deich, A., Gropp, J., Kennea, J., LaPorte, S.e.: GRB coordinates network. Circular Service, 22973 (2018)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Martone, R., Guidorzi, C., Kobayashi, S., Mundell, C., Gomboc, A., Steele, I., Cucchiara, A., Morris, D.: GRB coordinates network. Circular Service, 22976 (2018)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Meegan, C., Lichti, G., Bhat, P.N., Bissaldi, E., Briggs, M.S., Connaughton, V., Diehl, R., Fishman, G., Greiner, J., Hoover, A.S., van der Horst, A.J., von Kienlin, A., Kippen, R.M., Kouveliotou, C., McBreen, S., Paciesas, W.S., Preece, R., Steinle, H., Wallace, M.S., Wilson, R.B., Wilson-Hodge, C.: . ApJ 702, 791 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/702/1/791 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    LSST Science Collaboration, Abell, P.A., Allison, J., Anderson, S.F., Andrew, J.R., Angel, J.R.P., Armus, L., Arnett, D., Asztalos, S.J., Axelrod, T.S., et al. arXiv e-prints (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics and Earth ScienceUniversity of FerraraFerraraItaly
  2. 2.ICRANetPescaraItaly
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUniversity of BathBathUK
  4. 4.Astrophysics Research InstituteLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK
  5. 5.University of the Virgin IslandsSt ThomasUSA
  6. 6.Centre for Astrophysics and CosmologyUniversity of Nova GoricaAjdovščinaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations