Advertisement

Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 517–529 | Cite as

The planet formation imager

  • John D. MonnierEmail author
  • Stefan Kraus
  • Michael J. Ireland
  • Fabien Baron
  • Amelia Bayo
  • Jean-Philippe Berger
  • Michelle Creech-Eakman
  • Ruobing Dong
  • Gaspard Duchêne
  • Catherine Espaillat
  • Chris Haniff
  • Sebastian Hönig
  • Andrea Isella
  • Attila Juhasz
  • Lucas Labadie
  • Sylvestre Lacour
  • Stephanie Leifer
  • Antoine Merand
  • Ernest Michael
  • Stefano Minardi
  • Christoph Mordasini
  • David Mozurkewich
  • Johan Olofsson
  • Claudia Paladini
  • Romain Petrov
  • Jörg-Uwe Pott
  • Stephen Ridgway
  • Stephen Rinehart
  • Keivan Stassun
  • Jean Surdej
  • Theo ten Brummelaar
  • Neal Turner
  • Peter Tuthill
  • Kerry Vahala
  • Gerard van Belle
  • Gautam Vasisht
  • Ed Wishnow
  • John Young
  • Zhaohuan Zhu
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Future of Optical-infrared Interferometry in Europe

Abstract

The Planet Formation Imager (PFI, www.planetformationimager.org) is a next-generation infrared interferometer array with the primary goal of imaging the active phases of planet formation in nearby star forming regions. PFI will be sensitive to warm dust emission using mid-infrared capabilities made possible by precise fringe tracking in the near-infrared. An L/M band combiner will be especially sensitive to thermal emission from young exoplanets (and their disks) with a high spectral resolution mode to probe the kinematics of CO and H2O gas. In this paper, we give an overview of the main science goals of PFI, define a baseline PFI architecture that can achieve those goals, point at remaining technical challenges, and suggest activities today that will help make the Planet Formation Imager facility a reality.

Keywords

Interferometry Infrared Planet formation Exoplanets 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The PFI project team would like to acknowledge Professor Charles Townes for his profound impact on the field of stellar interferometry – Dr. Townes passed away January 27, 2015 and will be missed by many in our field.

References

  1. 1.
    Smith, B.A., Terrile, R.J.: A circumstellar disk around Beta Pictoris. Science 226, 1421–1424 (1984).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.226.4681.1421 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Calvet, N., D’Alessio, P., Hartmann, L., Wilner, D., Walsh, A., Sitko, M.: Evidence for a Developing Gap in a 10 Myr Old Protoplanetary Disk. ApJ 568, 1008–1016 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1086/339061 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Espaillat, C., Furlan, E., D’Alessio, P., Sargent, B., Nagel, E., Calvet, N., Watson, D.M., Muzerolle, J.: A Spitzer IRS Study of Infrared Variability in Transitional and Pretransitional Disks Around T Tauri Stars. ApJ 728, 49 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/728/1/49 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Macintosh, B.A., Graham, J.R., Palmer, D.W., Doyon, R., Dunn, J., Gavel, D.T., Larkin, J., Oppenheimer, B., Saddlemyer, L., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Wallace, J.K., Bauman, B., Erickson, D.A., Marois, C., Poyneer, L.A., Soummer, R: The Gemini Planet Imager: From science to design to construction. In: Proceedings of SPIE on Adaptive Optics Systems, vol. 7015, p 701518 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.788083
  5. 5.
    Beuzit, J.L., Feldt, M., Dohlen, K., Mouillet, D., Puget, P., Wildi, F., Abe, L., Antichi, J., Baruffolo, A., Baudoz, P., Boccaletti, A., Carbillet, M., Charton, J., Claudi, R., Downing, M., Fabron, C., Feautrier, P., Fedrigo, E., Fusco, T., Gach, J.L., Gratton, R., Henning, T., Hubin, N., Joos, F., Kasper, M., Langlois, M., Lenzen, R., Moutou, C., Pavlov, A., Petit, C., Pragt, J., Rabou, P., Rigal, F., Roelfsema, R., Rousset, G., Saisse, M., Schmid, H.M., Stadler, E., Thalmann, C., Turatto, M., Udry, S., Vakili, F., Waters, R.: SPHERE: A ‘Planet Finder’ instrument for the VLT. In: Proceedings of SPIE on Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy II, vol. 7014, p 701418 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.790120
  6. 6.
    ALMA Partnership, Brogan, C.L., Pérez, L.M., Hunter, T.R., Dent, W.R.F., Hales, A.S., Hills, R.E., Corder, S., Fomalont, E.B., Vlahakis, C., Asaki, Y., Barkats, D., Hirota, A., Hodge, J.A., Impellizzeri, C.M.V., Kneissl, R., Liuzzo, E., Lucas, R., Marcelino, N., Matsushita, S., Nakanishi, K., Phillips, N., Richards, A.M.S., Toledo, I., Aladro, R., Broguiere, D., Cortes, J.R., Cortes, P.C., Espada, D., Galarza, F., Garcia-Appadoo, D., Guzman-Ramirez, L., Humphreys, E.M., Jung, T., Kameno, S., Laing, R.A., Leon, S., Marconi, G., Mignano, A., Nikolic, B., Nyman, L.A., Radiszcz, M., Remijan, A., Rodón, J.A., Sawada, T., Takahashi, S., Tilanus, R.P.J., Vila Vilaro, B., Watson, L.C., Wiklind, T., Akiyama, E., Chapillon, E., de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I., Di Francesco, J., Gueth, F., Kawamura, A., Lee, C.F., Nguyen Luong, Q., Mangum, J., Pietu, V., Sanhueza, P., Saigo, K., Takakuwa, S., Ubach, C., van Kempen, T., Wootten, A., Castro-Carrizo, A., Francke, H., Gallardo, J., Garcia, J., Gonzalez, S., Hill, T., Kaminski, T., Kurono, Y., Liu, H.Y., Lopez, C., Morales, F., Plarre, K., Schieven, G., Testi, L., Videla, L., Villard, E., Andreani, P., Hibbard, J.E., Tatematsu, K.: The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign: First Results from High Angular Resolution Observations toward the HL Tau Region. ApJ 808, L3 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/808/1/L3 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Monnier, J.D., Kraus, S., Buscher, D., Berger, J.P., Haniff, C., Ireland, M., Labadie, L., Lacour, S., Le Coroller, H., Petrov, R.G., Pott, J.U., Ridgway, S., Surdej, J., ten Brummelaar, T., Tuthill, P., van Belle, G: Planet formation imager (PFI): Introduction and technical considerations. In: Proceedings of SPIE on Optical and Infrared Interferometry IV, vol. 9146, p 914610 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2057262
  8. 8.
    Kraus, S., Monnier, J., Harries, T., Dong, R., Bate, M., Whitney, B., Zhu, Z., Buscher, D., Berger, J.P., Haniff, C., Ireland, M., Labadie, L., Lacour, S., Petrov, R., Ridgway, S., Surdej, J., ten Brummelaar, T., Tuthill, P., van Belle, G.: The science case for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI). In: Proceedings of SPIE on Optical and Infrared Interferometry IV, vol. 9146, p 914611 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2055544
  9. 9.
    Ireland, M.J., Monnier, J.D.: A dispersed heterodyne design for the planet formation imager. In: Proceedings of SPIE on Optical and Infrared Interferometry IV, vol. 9146, p 914612 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2057355
  10. 10.
    Dong, R., Zhu, Z., Whitney, B.: Observational Signatures of Planets in Protoplanetary Disks I. Gaps Opened by Single and Multiple Young Planets in Disks. ApJ 809, 93 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/809/1/93 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baraffe, I., Chabrier, G., Allard, F., Hauschildt, P.H.: Evolutionary models for solar metallicity low-mass stars: mass-magnitude relationships and color-magnitude diagrams. A&A 337, 403–412 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Spiegel, D.S., Burrows, A.: Spectral and Photometric Diagnostics of Giant Planet Formation Scenarios. ApJ 745, 174 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/745/2/174 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhu, Z.: Accreting Circumplanetary Disks: Observational Signatures. ApJ 799, 16 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/16 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Monnier, J.D., Ireland, M.J., Kraus, S., Baron, F., Creech-Eakman, M., Dong, R., Isella, A., Merand, A., Michael, E., Minardi, S., Mozurkewich, D., Petrov, R., Rinehart, S., ten Brummelaar, T., Vasisht, G., Wishnow, E., Young, J., Zhu, Z.: Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI). In: Proceedings of SPIE on Optical and Infrared Interferometry and Imaging V, vol. 9907, p 99071O (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2233311
  15. 15.
    Kraus, S., Monnier, J.D., Ireland, M.J., Duchêne, G., Espaillat, C., Hönig, S., Juhasz, A., Mordasini, C., Olofsson, J., Paladini, C., Stassun, K., Turner, N., Vasisht, G., Harries, T.J., Bate, M.R., Gonzalez, J.F., Matter, A., Zhu, Z., Panic, O., Regaly, Z., Morbidelli, A., Meru, F., Wolf, S., Ilee, J., Berger, J.P., Zhao, M., Kral, Q., Morlok, A., Bonsor, A., Ciardi, D., Kane, S.R., Kratter, K., Laughlin, G., Pepper, J., Raymond, S., Labadie, L., Nelson, R.P., Weigelt, G., ten Brummelaar, T., Pierens, A., Oudmaijer, R., Kley, W., Pope, B., Jensen, E.L.N., Bayo, A., Smith, M., Boyajian, T., Quiroga-Nuñez, L.H., Millan-Gabet, R., Chiavassa, A., Gallenne, A., Reynolds, M., de Wit, W.J., Wittkowski, M., Millour, F., Gandhi, P., Ramos Almeida, C., Alonso Herrero, A., Packham, C., Kishimoto, M., Tristram, K.R.W., Pott, J.U., Surdej, J., Buscher, D., Haniff, C., Lacour, S., Petrov, R., Ridgway, S., Tuthill, P., van Belle, G., Armitage, P., Baruteau, C., Benisty, M., Bitsch, B., Paardekooper, S.J., Pinte, C., Masset, F., Rosotti, G.: Planet Formation Imager (PFI): Science vision and key requirements. In: Proceedings of SPIE on Optical and Infrared Interferometry and Imaging V, vol. 9907, p 99071K (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2231067
  16. 16.
    Ireland, M.J., Monnier, J.D., Kraus, S., Isella, A., Minardi, S., Petrov, R., ten Brummelaar, T., Young, J., Vasisht, G., Mozurkewich, D., Rinehart, S., Michael, E.A., van Belle, G., Woillez, J.: Status of the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) concept. In: Proceedings of SPIE on Optical and Infrared Interferometry and Imaging V, vol. 9907, p 99071L (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2233926
  17. 17.
    Minardi, S., Lacour, S., Berger, J.P., Labadie, L., Thomson, R.R., Haniff, C., Ireland, M.: Beam combination schemes and technologies for the Planet Formation Imager. In: Proceedings of SPIE on Optical and Infrared Interferometry and Imaging V, vol. 9907, p 99071N (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232656
  18. 18.
    Mozurkewich, D., Young, J., Ireland, M.: Practical beam transport for PFI. In: Proceedings of SPIE on Optical and Infrared Interferometry and Imaging V, vol. 9907, p 99073X (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232382
  19. 19.
    Besser, F.E., Rates, A., Ortega, N., Pina, M.I., Pollarolo, C., Jofre, M., Yañez, C., Lasen, M., Ramos, N., Michael, E.A.: Fiber-based heterodyne infrared interferometry: An instrumentation study platform on the way to the proposed Infrared Planet Formation Imager. In: Proceedings of SPIE on Optical and Infrared Interferometry and Imaging V, vol. 9907, p 99072L (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2233687
  20. 20.
    Petrov, R.G., Boskri, A., Elhalkouj, T., Monnier, J., Ireland, M., Kraus, S.: Co-phasing the planet formation imager. In: Proceedings of SPIE on Optical and Infrared Interferometry and Imaging V, vol. 9907, p. 99073W (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2231081
  21. 21.
    Hugi, A., Villares, G., Blaser, S., Liu, H.C., Faist, J.: Nature 492, 229–233 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Colavita, M.M.: Simultaneous Water Vapor and Dry Air Path Length Measurements with the Keck Interferometer Nuller. PASP 122, 712–721 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1086/653145 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Müller, A., Pott, J.U., Mérand, A., Abuter, R., Delplancke-Ströbele, F., Henning, T., Köhler, R., Leinert, C., Morel, S., Phan Duc, T., Pozna, E., Ramirez, A., Sahlmann, J., Schmid, C.: Mid-infrared interferometry with K band fringe-tracking. I. The VLTI MIDI+FSU experiment. A&A 567, A98 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201423933 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Timmers, H., Kowligy, A., Lind, A., Cruz, F.C., Nader, N., Silfies, M., Allison, T.K., Ycas, G., Schunemann, P.G., Papp, S.B., Diddams, S.A.: Dual frequency comb spectroscopy in the molecular fingerprint region. ArXiv e-prints (2017)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Colavita, M.M., Wallace, J.K., Hines, B.E., Gursel, Y., Malbet, F., Palmer, D.L., Pan, X.P., Shao, M., Yu, J.W., Boden, A.F., Dumont, P.J., Gubler, J., Koresko, C.D., Kulkarni, S.R., Lane, B.F., Mobley, D.W., van Belle, G.T.: The Palomar Testbed Interferometer. ApJ 510, 505–521 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1086/306579 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. Monnier
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stefan Kraus
    • 2
  • Michael J. Ireland
    • 3
  • Fabien Baron
    • 4
  • Amelia Bayo
    • 5
  • Jean-Philippe Berger
    • 6
  • Michelle Creech-Eakman
    • 7
  • Ruobing Dong
    • 8
  • Gaspard Duchêne
    • 9
  • Catherine Espaillat
    • 10
  • Chris Haniff
    • 11
  • Sebastian Hönig
    • 12
  • Andrea Isella
    • 13
  • Attila Juhasz
    • 11
  • Lucas Labadie
    • 14
  • Sylvestre Lacour
    • 15
  • Stephanie Leifer
    • 16
  • Antoine Merand
    • 17
  • Ernest Michael
    • 18
  • Stefano Minardi
    • 19
  • Christoph Mordasini
    • 20
  • David Mozurkewich
    • 21
  • Johan Olofsson
    • 5
  • Claudia Paladini
    • 22
  • Romain Petrov
    • 23
  • Jörg-Uwe Pott
    • 24
  • Stephen Ridgway
    • 25
  • Stephen Rinehart
    • 26
  • Keivan Stassun
    • 27
  • Jean Surdej
    • 28
  • Theo ten Brummelaar
    • 4
  • Neal Turner
    • 16
  • Peter Tuthill
    • 29
  • Kerry Vahala
    • 30
  • Gerard van Belle
    • 31
  • Gautam Vasisht
    • 16
  • Ed Wishnow
    • 32
  • John Young
    • 11
  • Zhaohuan Zhu
    • 33
  1. 1.Department of AstronomyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.University of ExeterExeterUK
  3. 3.Research School of Astronomy and AstrophysicsAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  4. 4.Georgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.Universidad de ValparaísoValparaísoChile
  6. 6.Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de GrenobleSaint-Martin-d’HìresFrance
  7. 7.New Mexico Institute of Mining and TechnologySocorroUSA
  8. 8.The University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  9. 9.University of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  10. 10.Boston UniversityBostonUSA
  11. 11.University of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  12. 12.University of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  13. 13.Rice UniversityHoustonUSA
  14. 14.Universität zu KölnKölnGermany
  15. 15.Observatoire de ParisParisFrance
  16. 16.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryPasadenaUSA
  17. 17.European Southern ObservatoryGarching bei MünchenGermany
  18. 18.Universidad de ChileSantiagoChile
  19. 19.Institute of Applied PhysicsFriedrich-Schiller-University JenaJenaGermany
  20. 20.University of BernBernSwitzerland
  21. 21.Seabrook EngineeringSeabrookUSA
  22. 22.Université Libre de BruxellesBruxellesBelgium
  23. 23.Observatoire de la Côte d’AzurNiceFrance
  24. 24.Max-Planck-Institut für AstronomieHeidelbergGermany
  25. 25.National Optical Astronomy ObservatoryTucsonUSA
  26. 26.NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr.GreenbeltUSA
  27. 27.Vanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  28. 28.Université de LiègeLiègeBelgium
  29. 29.The University of SydneyCamperdownAustralia
  30. 30.California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  31. 31.Lowell ObservatoryFlagstaffUSA
  32. 32.Space Sciences LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA
  33. 33.University of Nevada, Las VegasRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations