Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 255–268 | Cite as

Laboratory characterization of bent monocrystal wafers for Bragg X-ray spectroscopy

  • Stefan Płocieniak
  • Żaneta Szaforz
Original Article


We describe our laboratory procedures for precise measurements of lattice surface profile, where Bragg reflection takes place, of bent monocrystal wafers. A comparison of X-ray spectrometer characteristics for perfect and real crystals is presented. The described procedures will be used to measure the properties of the crystals that will be used as the dispersive elements in the future solar X-ray spectrometers SolpeX and ChemiX.


Spectroscopy X-rays Measurments Sun 



We are grateful to prof. Janusz Sylwester for his valuable comments and corrections, which have improved this article. We acknowledge financial support from the Polish National Science Center grant 2013/11/B/ST9/00234.


  1. 1.
    Acton, L., Tsuneta, S., Ogawara, Y., Bentley, R., Bruner, M., Canfield, R., Culhane, L., Doschek, G., Hiei, E., Hirayama, T.: The YOHKOH mission for high-energy solar physics. Science 258, 618–625 (1992). ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Acton, L.W., Finch, M.L., Gilbreth, C.W., Culhane, J.L., Bentley, R.D., Bowles, J.A., Guttridge, P., Gabriel, A.H., Firth, J.G., Hayes, R.W.: The soft X-ray polychromator for the Solar Maximum Mission. Solar Phys. 65, 53–71 (1980). ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burek, A.: Crystals for astronomical X-ray spectroscopy. Space Sci. Instrumen. 2, 53–104 (1976)ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Culhane, J.L., Hiei, E., Doschek, G.A., Cruise, A.M., Ogawara, Y., Uchida, Y., Bentley, R.D., Brown, C.M., Lang, J., Watanabe, T., Bowles, J.A., Deslattes, R.D., Feldman, U., Fludra, A., Guttridge, P., Henins, A., Lapington, J., Magraw, J., Mariska, J.T., Payne, J., Phillips, K.J.H., Sheather, P., Slater, K., Tanaka, K., Towndrow, E., Trow, M.W., Yamaguchi, A.: The Bragg Crystal Spectrometer for SOLAR-A. Solar Phys. 136, 89–104 (1991). ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dennis, B., Milligan, R.: Solar Satellites. Scholarpedia 5 (7), 6139 (2010). Revision #143457ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Doschek, G.A., Kreplin, R.W., Feldman, U.: High-resolution solar flare X-ray spectra. Astrophys. J. Lett. 233, L157–L160 (1979). ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rapley, C.G., Sylwester, J., Phillips, K.J.H.: New Results from the Solar Maximum Mission/Bent Crystal Spectrometer. Solar Phys. 292, 50 (2017). ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Siarkowski, M., Sylwester, J., Ba̧kała, J., Szaforz, Ż., Kowaliński, M., Kordylewski, Z., Płocieniak, S., Podgórski, P., Sylwester, B., Trzebiński, W., Stȩślicki, M., Phillips, K.J.H., Dudnik, O.V., Kurbatov, E., Kuznetsov, V.D., Kuzin, S., Zimovets, I.V.: ChemiX: a Bragg crystal spectrometer for the Interhelioprobe interplanetary mission. Exp. Astron. 41, 327–350 (2016). ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stȩślicki, M., Sylwester, J., Płocieniak, S., Bakała, J., Szaforz, ż., Ścisłowski, D., Kowaliński, M., Hernandez, J., Kuzin, S., Shestov, S.: Soft X-ray polarimeter-spectrometer SOLPEX. In: Kosovichev, A.G., Hawley, S.L., Heinzel, P. (eds.) Solar and Stellar Flares and their Effects on Planets, IAU Symposium, vol. 320, pp 450–455 (2016).
  10. 10.
    Sylwester, J., Gaicki, I., Kordylewski, Z., Kowaliński, M., Nowak, S., Płocieniak, S., Siarkowski, M., Sylwester, B., Trzebiński, W., Bakała, J., Culhane, J.L., Whyndham, M., Bentley, R.D., Guttridge, P.R., Phillips, K.J.H., Lang, J., Brown, C.M., Doschek, G.A., Kuznetsov, V.D., Oraevsky, V.N., Stepanov, A.I., Lisin, D.V.: RESIK: A bent crystal x-ray spectrometer for studies of solar coronal plasma composition. Solar Phys. 226, 45–72 (2005). ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sylwester, J., Kordylewski, Z., Płocieniak, S., Siarkowski, M., Kowaliński, M., Nowak, S., Trzebiński, W., Steślicki, M., Sylwester, B., Stańczyk, E., Zawerbny, R., Szaforz, ż., Phillips, K.J.H., Fárník, F., Stepanov, A.: X-ray Flare Spectra from the DIOGENESS Spectrometer and Its Concept Applied to ChemiX on the Interhelioprobe Spacecraft. Solar Phys. (2015)
  12. 12.
    Tanaka, K., Watanabe, T., Nishi, K., Akita, K.: High-resolution solar flare X-ray spectra obtained with rotating spectrometers on the HINOTORI satellite. Astrophys. J. Lett. 254, L59–L63 (1982). ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Space Research CenterPolish Academy of SciencesWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Astronomical InstituteUniversity of WrocławWrocławPoland

Personalised recommendations