Advertisement

Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 311–353 | Cite as

EChO

Exoplanet characterisation observatory
  • G. Tinetti
  • J. P. Beaulieu
  • T. Henning
  • M. Meyer
  • G. Micela
  • I. Ribas
  • D. Stam
  • M. Swain
  • O. Krause
  • M. Ollivier
  • E. Pace
  • B. Swinyard
  • A. Aylward
  • R. van Boekel
  • A. Coradini
  • T. Encrenaz
  • I. Snellen
  • M. R. Zapatero-Osorio
  • J. Bouwman
  • J. Y-K. Cho
  • V. Coudé de Foresto
  • T. Guillot
  • M. Lopez-Morales
  • I. Mueller-Wodarg
  • E. Palle
  • F. Selsis
  • A. Sozzetti
  • P. A. R. Ade
  • N. Achilleos
  • A. Adriani
  • C. B. Agnor
  • C. Afonso
  • C. Allende Prieto
  • G. Bakos
  • R. J. Barber
  • M. Barlow
  • V. Batista
  • P. Bernath
  • B. Bézard
  • P. Bordé
  • L. R. Brown
  • A. Cassan
  • C. Cavarroc
  • A. Ciaravella
  • C. Cockell
  • A. Coustenis
  • C. Danielski
  • L. Decin
  • R. De Kok
  • O. Demangeon
  • P. Deroo
  • P. Doel
  • P. Drossart
  • L. N. Fletcher
  • M. Focardi
  • F. Forget
  • S. Fossey
  • P. Fouqué
  • J. Frith
  • M. Galand
  • P. Gaulme
  • J. I. González Hernández
  • O. Grasset
  • D. Grassi
  • J. L. Grenfell
  • M. J. Griffin
  • C. A. Griffith
  • U. Grözinger
  • M. Guedel
  • P. Guio
  • O. Hainaut
  • R. Hargreaves
  • P. H. Hauschildt
  • K. Heng
  • D. Heyrovsky
  • R. Hueso
  • P. Irwin
  • L. Kaltenegger
  • P. Kervella
  • D. Kipping
  • T. T. Koskinen
  • G. Kovács
  • A. La Barbera
  • H. Lammer
  • E. Lellouch
  • G. Leto
  • M. Lopez Morales
  • M. A. Lopez Valverde
  • M. Lopez-Puertas
  • C. Lovis
  • A. Maggio
  • J. P. Maillard
  • J. Maldonado Prado
  • J. B. Marquette
  • F. J. Martin-Torres
  • P. Maxted
  • S. Miller
  • S. Molinari
  • D. Montes
  • A. Moro-Martin
  • J. I. Moses
  • O. Mousis
  • N. Nguyen Tuong
  • R. Nelson
  • G. S. Orton
  • E. Pantin
  • E. Pascale
  • S. Pezzuto
  • D. Pinfield
  • E. Poretti
  • R. Prinja
  • L. Prisinzano
  • J. M. Rees
  • A. Reiners
  • B. Samuel
  • A. Sánchez-Lavega
  • J. Sanz Forcada
  • D. Sasselov
  • G. Savini
  • B. Sicardy
  • A. Smith
  • L. Stixrude
  • G. Strazzulla
  • J. Tennyson
  • M. Tessenyi
  • G. Vasisht
  • S. Vinatier
  • S. Viti
  • I. Waldmann
  • G. J. White
  • T. Widemann
  • R. Wordsworth
  • R. Yelle
  • Y. Yung
  • S. N. Yurchenko
Original Article

Abstract

A dedicated mission to investigate exoplanetary atmospheres represents a major milestone in our quest to understand our place in the universe by placing our Solar System in context and by addressing the suitability of planets for the presence of life. EChO—the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory—is a mission concept specifically geared for this purpose. EChO will provide simultaneous, multi-wavelength spectroscopic observations on a stable platform that will allow very long exposures. The use of passive cooling, few moving parts and well established technology gives a low-risk and potentially long-lived mission. EChO will build on observations by Hubble, Spitzer and ground-based telescopes, which discovered the first molecules and atoms in exoplanetary atmospheres. However, EChO’s configuration and specifications are designed to study a number of systems in a consistent manner that will eliminate the ambiguities affecting prior observations. EChO will simultaneously observe a broad enough spectral region—from the visible to the mid-infrared—to constrain from one single spectrum the temperature structure of the atmosphere, the abundances of the major carbon and oxygen bearing species, the expected photochemically-produced species and magnetospheric signatures. The spectral range and resolution are tailored to separate bands belonging to up to 30 molecules and retrieve the composition and temperature structure of planetary atmospheres. The target list for EChO includes planets ranging from Jupiter-sized with equilibrium temperatures T eq up to 2,000 K, to those of a few Earth masses, with T eq \u223c 300 K. The list will include planets with no Solar System analog, such as the recently discovered planets GJ1214b, whose density lies between that of terrestrial and gaseous planets, or the rocky-iron planet 55 Cnc e, with day-side temperature close to 3,000 K. As the number of detected exoplanets is growing rapidly each year, and the mass and radius of those detected steadily decreases, the target list will be constantly adjusted to include the most interesting systems. We have baselined a dispersive spectrograph design covering continuously the 0.4–16 μm spectral range in 6 channels (1 in the visible, 5 in the InfraRed), which allows the spectral resolution to be adapted from several tens to several hundreds, depending on the target brightness. The instrument will be mounted behind a 1.5 m class telescope, passively cooled to 50 K, with the instrument structure and optics passively cooled to \u223c45 K. EChO will be placed in a grand halo orbit around L2. This orbit, in combination with an optimised thermal shield design, provides a highly stable thermal environment and a high degree of visibility of the sky to observe repeatedly several tens of targets over the year. Both the baseline and alternative designs have been evaluated and no critical items with Technology Readiness Level (TRL) less than 4–5 have been identified. We have also undertaken a first-order cost and development plan analysis and find that EChO is easily compatible with the ESA M-class mission framework.

Keywords

Exoplanets Planetary atmospheres Space mission 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank F. Henry, S. Cnudde, CNES/PASO, Astrium GmbH Germany, AIM Infrarot-Module GmbH and Astrium UK for their support in preparing the EChO proposal.

References

  1. 1.
    Cho, J., Menou, K., Hansen, B.M.S., Seager, S.: The changing face of the extrasolar giant planet HD 209458b. ApJ 587, L117 (2003). doi: 10.1086/375016 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thrastarson, H.T., Cho, J.: Effects of initial flow on close-in planet atmospheric circulation. ApJ 716, 144 (2010). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/144 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harrington, J., Hansen, B.M., Luszcz, S.H., Seager, S., Deming, D., Menou, K., Cho, J., Richardson, L.J.: Science 27, 623 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Crossfield, I.J.M., Hansen, B.M.S., Harrington, J., Cho, J., Deming, D., Menou, K., Seager, S.: A new 24 micron phase curve for υ Andromedae b. ApJ 723, 1436 (2010). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1436 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Laughlin, G., Deming, D., Langton, J., Kasen, D., Vogt, S., Butler, P., Rivera, E., Meschiari, S.: Rapid heating of the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet. Nature 457, 562 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kipping, D.M., Fossey, S.J., Campanella, G.: On the detectability of habitable exomoons with Kepler-class photometry. MNRAS 400, 398 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15472.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Segura, A., Kasting, J.F., Meadows, V., Cohen, M., Scalo, J., Crisp, D., Butler, R.A.H., Tinetti, G.: Biosignatures from Earth-like planets around M dwarfs. Astrobiology 5, 706 (2005). doi: 10.1089/ast.2005.5.706 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grenfell, J.L., Gebauer, S., Palczynski, K., Rauer, H., Lehmann, R., von Paris, P., Godolt, M., Selsis, F.: Potential biosignatures in super-Earth atmospheres II. p. (in prep, 2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tinetti, G., Cho, J.Y.K., Griffith, C.A., Grasset, O., Grenfell, L., Guillot, T., Koskinen, T.T., Moses, J.I., Pinfield, D., Tennyson, J., Tessenyi, M., Wordsworth, R., Aylward, A., van Boekel, R., Coradini, A., Encrenaz, T., Snellen, I., Zapatero-Osorio, M.R., Bouwman, J., du Foresto, V.C., Lopez-Morales, M., Mueller-Wodarg, I., Pallé, E., Selsis, F., Sozzetti, A., Beaulieu, J.P., Henning, T., Meyer, M., Micela, G., Ribas, I., Stam, D., Swain, M., Krause, O., Ollivier, M., Pace, E., Swinyard, B., Ade, P.A.R., Achilleos, N., Adriani, A., Agnor, C.B., Afonso, C., Prieto, C.A., Bakos, G., Barber, R.J., Barlow, M., Bernath, P., Bézard, B., Bordé, P., Brown, L.R., Cassan, A., Cavarroc, C., Ciaravella, A., Cockell, C., Coustenis, A., Danielski, C., Decin, L., De Kok, R., Demangeon, O., Deroo, P., Doel, P., Drossart, P., Fletcher, L.N., Focardi, M., Forget, F., Fossey, S., Fouqué, P., Frith, J., Galand, M., Gaulme, P., Hernández, J.I.G., Grassi, D., Griffin, M.J., Grözinger, U., Guedel, M., Guio, P., Hainaut, O., Hargreaves, R., Hauschildt, P.H., Heng, K., Heyrovsky, D., Hueso, R., Irwin, P., Kaltenegger, L., Kervella, P., Kipping, D., Kovacs, G., Barbera, A.L., Lammer, H., Lellouch, E., Leto, G., Morales, M.L., Valverde, M.A.L., Lopez-Puertas, M., Lovi, C., Maggio, A., Maillard, J.P., Prado, J.M., Marquette, J.B., Martin-Torres, F.J., Maxted, P., Miller, S., Molinari, S., Montes, D., Moro-Martin, A., Mousis, O., Tuong, N.N., Nelson, R., Orton, G.S., Pantin, E., Pascale, E., Pezzuto, S., Poretti, E., Prinja, R., Prisinzano, L., Réess, J.M., Reiners, A., Samuel, B., Forcada, J.S., Sasselov, D., Savini, G., Sicardy, B., Smith, A., Stixrude, L., Strazzulla, G., Vasisht, G., Vinatier, S., Viti, S., Waldmann, I., White, G.J., Widemann, T., Yelle, R., Yung, Y., Yurchenko, S.: The science of EChO. In: Sozzetti, A., Lattanzi, M.G., Boss A.P. (eds) IAU Symposium, vol. 276, pp. 359–370 (2011). doi: 10.1017/S1743921311020448
  10. 10.
    Schneider, J.: http://www.exoplanet.eu (2011)
  11. 11.
    Leger, A., Rouan, D., Schneider, J., Barge, P., Fridlund, M., Samuel, B., Ollivier, M., Guenther, E., Deleuil, M., Deeg, H., Auvergne, M., Alonso, R., Aigrain, S., Alapini, A., Almenara, J., Baglin, A., Barbieri, M., Bruntt, H., Borde, P., Bouchy, F., Cabrera, J., Catala, C., Carone, L., Carpano, S., Csizmadia, S., Dvorak, R., Erikson, A., Ferraz-Mello, S., Foing, B., Fressin, F., Gandolfi, D., Gillon, M., Gondoin, P., Grasset, O., Guillot, T., Hatzes, A., Hebrard, G., Jorda, L., Lammer, H., Llebaria, A., Loeillet, B., Mayor, M., Mazeh, T., Moutou, C., Paetzold, M., Pont, F., Queloz, D., Rauer, H., Renner, S., Samadi, R., Shporer, A., Sotin, C., Tingley, B., Wuchterl, G.:Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Batalha, N.M., Borucki, W.J., Bryson, S.T., Buchhave, L.A., Caldwell, D.A., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Ciardi, D., Dunham, E.W., Fressin, F., Gautier, III, T.N., Gilliland, R.L., Haas, M.R., Howell, S.B., Jenkins, J.M., Kjeldsen, H., Koch, D.G., Latham, D.W., Lissauer, J.J., Marcy, G.W., Rowe, J.F., Sasselov, D.D., Seager, S., Steffen, J.H., Torres, G., Basri, G.S., Brown, T.M., Charbonneau, D., Christiansen, J., Clarke, B., Cochran, W.D., Dupree, A., Fabrycky, D.C., Fischer, D., Ford, E.B., Fortney, J., Girouard, F.R., Holman, M.J., Johnson, J., Isaacson, H., Klaus, T.C., Machalek, P., Moorehead, A.V., Morehead, R.C., Ragozzine, D., Tenenbaum, P., Twicken, J., Quinn, S., VanCleve, J., Walkowicz, L.M., Welsh, W.F., Devore, E., Gould, A.: Kepler’s first rocky planet: Kepler-10b. ApJ 729, 27 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/729/1/27 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Winn, J.N., Matthews, J.M., Dawson, R.I., Fabrycky, D., Holman, M.J., Kallinger, T., Kuschnig, R., Sasselov, D., Dragomir, D., Guenther, D.B., Moffat, A.F.J., Rowe, J.F., Rucinski, S., Weiss, W.W.: A super-Earth transiting a naked-eye star. ApJL 737, L18+ (2011). doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/737/1/L18 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Charbonneau, D., Berta, Z.K., Irwin, J., Burke, C.J., Nutzman, P., Buchhave, L.A., Lovis, C., Bonfils, X., Latham, D.W., Udry, S., Murray-Clay, R.A., Holman, M.J., Falco, E.E., Winn, J.N., Queloz, D., Pepe, F., Mayor, M., Delfosse, X., Forveille, T.: Nature 462, 891 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Henry, G.W., Howard, A.W., Marcy, G.W., Fischer, D.A., Johnson, J.A.: Detection of a transiting low-density super-Earth. ArXiv e-prints (2011)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marcy, G.W., Butler, R.P.: A planetary companion to 70 virginis. ApJ 464, L147+ (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rivera, E.J., Lissauer, J.J., Butler, R.P., Marcy, G.W., Vogt, S.S., Fischer, D.A., Brown, T.M., Laughlin, G., Henry, G.W.: A 7.5 ME planet orbiting the nearby star, GJ 876. ApJ 634, 625 (2005). doi: 10.1086/491669 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mayor, M., Bonfils, X., Forveille, T., Delfosse, X., Udry, S., Bertaux, J.L., Beust, H., Bouchy, F., Lovis, C., Pepe, F., Perrier, C., Queloz, D., Santos, N.C.: A&A 507, 487 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mayor, M., Marmier, M., Lovis, C., Udry, S., Ségransan, D., Pepe, F., Benz, W., Bertaux, J., Bouchy, F., Dumusque, X., Lo Curto, G., Mordasini, C., Queloz, D., Santos, N.C.: The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XXXIV. Occurrence, mass distribution and orbital properties of super-Earths and Neptune-mass planets. ArXiv e-prints (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Borucki, W.J., Koch, D.G., Basri, G., Batalha, N., Brown, T.M., Bryson, S.T., Caldwell, D., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Cochran, W.D., DeVore, E., Dunham, E.W., Gautier, III, T.N., Geary, J.C., Gilliland, R., Gould, A., Howell, S.B., Jenkins, J.M., Latham, D.W., Lissauer, J.J., Marcy, G.W., Rowe, J., Sasselov, D., Boss, A., Charbonneau, D., Ciardi, D., Doyle, L., Dupree, A.K., Ford, E.B., Fortney, J., Holman, M.J., Seager, S., Steffen, J.H., Tarter, J., Welsh, W.F., Allen, C., Buchhave, L.A., Christiansen, J.L., Clarke, B.D., Das, S., Désert, J.M., Endl, M., Fabrycky, D., Fressin, F., Haas, M., Horch, E., Howard, A., Isaacson, H., Kjeldsen, H., Kolodziejczak, J., Kulesa, C., Li, J., Lucas, P.W., Machalek, P., McCarthy, D., MacQueen, P., Meibom, S., Miquel, T., Prsa, A., Quinn, S.N., Quintana, E.V., Ragozzine, D., Sherry, W., Shporer, A., Tenenbaum, P., Torres, G., Twicken, J.D., Van Cleve, J., Walkowicz, L., Witteborn, F.C., Still, M.: Characteristics of planetary candidates observed by Kepler. II. Analysis of the first four months of data. ApJ 736, 19 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/19 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Howard, A.W., Marcy, G.W., Bryson, S.T., Jenkins, J.M., Rowe, J.F., Batalha, N.M., Borucki, W.J., Koch, D.G., Dunham, E.W., Gautier, III, T.N., Van Cleve, J., Cochran, W.D., Latham, D.W., Lissauer, J.J., Torres, G., Brown, T.M., Gilliland, R.L., Buchhave, L.A., Caldwell, D.A., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Ciardi, D., Fressin, F., Haas, M.R., Howell, S.B., Kjeldsen, H., Seager, S., Rogers, L., Sasselov, D.D., Steffen, J.H., Basri, G.S., Charbonneau, D., Christiansen, J., Clarke, B., Dupree, A., Fabrycky, D.C., Fischer, D.A., Ford, E.B., Fortney, J.J., Tarter, J., Girouard, F.R., Holman, M.J., Johnson, J.A., Klaus, T.C., Machalek, P., Moorhead, A.V., Morehead, R.C., Ragozzine, D., Tenenbaum, P., Twicken, J.D., Quinn, S.N., Isaacson, H., Shporer, A., Lucas, P.W., Walkowicz, L.M., Welsh, W.F., Boss, A., Devore, E., Gould, A., Smith, J.C., Morris, R.L., Prsa, A., Morton, T.D.: Planet occurrence within 0.25 AU of Solar-type Stars from Kepler. ArXiv e-prints (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cassan, A., Kubas, D., Beaulieu, J.P., et al.: One or more planets per Milky Way star according to microlensing observations. Nature (2011, in press)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tessenyi, M., Ollivier, M., Tinetti, G., Beaulieu, J.P., Coude du Foresto, V., Encrenaz, T., Micela, G., Swinyard, B., Ribas, I., Aylward, A., Tennyson, J., Swain, M.R., Sozzetti, A., Vasisht, G., Deroo, P.: ApJ (2011, in press)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lépine, S., Gaidos, E.: An all-sky catalog of bright M dwarfs. AJ 142, 138 (2011). doi: 10.1088/  0004-6256/142/4/138 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mandell, A.M., Raymond, S.N., Sigurdsson, S.: Formation of Earth-like planets during and after giant planet migration. ApJ 660, 823 (2007). doi: 10.1086/512759 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Borucki, W.J., Koch, D., Jenkins, J., Sasselov, D., Gilliland, R., Batalha, N., Latham, D.W., Caldwell, D., Basri, G., Brown, T., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Cochran, W.D., DeVore, E., Dunham, E., Dupree, A.K., Gautier, T., Geary, J., Gould, A., Howell, S., Kjeldsen, H., Lissauer, J., Marcy, G., Meibom, S., Morrison, D., Tarter, J.: Kepler’s optical phase curve of the exoplanet HAT-P-7b. Science 325, 709 (2009). doi: 10.1126/science.1178312 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seager, S., Sasselov, D.D.: Theoretical transmission spectra during extrasolar giant planet transits. Theoretical transmission spectra during extrasolar giant planet transits. ApJ 537, 916 (2000). doi: 10.1086/309088 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brown, T.M.: ApJ 553, 1006 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tinetti, G., Liang, M.C., Vidal-Madjar, A., Ehrenreich, D., des Etangs, A.L., Yung, Y.: ApJ 654, L99 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Charbonneau, D., Brown, T.M., Noyes, R.W., Gilliland, R.L.: ApJ 568, 377 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vidal-Madjar, A., Lecavelier des Etangs, A., Désert, J.M., Ballester, G.E., Ferlet, R., Hébrard, G., Mayor, M.: An extended upper atmosphere around the extrasolar planet HD209458b. Nature 422, 143 (2003). doi: 10.1038/nature01448 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Knutson, H.A., Charbonneau, D., Noyes, R.W., Brown, T.M., Gilliland, R.L.: Using Stellar limb-darkening to refine the properties of HD 209458b. ApJ 655, 564 (2007). doi: 10.1086/510111 Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pont, F., Knutson, H., Gilliland, R.L., Moutou, C., Charbonneau, D.: Detection of atmospheric haze on an extrasolar planet: the 0.55–1.05 μm transmission spectrum of HD 189733b with the HubbleSpaceTelescope. MNRAS 385, 109 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.12852.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Redfield, S., Endl, M., Cochran, W., Koesterke, L.: ApJ 673, 87 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Snellen, I., Albrecht, S., de Mooij, E., Le Poole, R.: A&A 487, 357 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bean, J.L., Kempton, E.M.R., Homeier, D.: Nature 468, 669 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Knutson, H.A., Charbonneau, D., Allen, L.E., Fortney, J.J., Agol, E., Cowan, N.B., Showman, A.P., Cooper, C.S., Megeath, S.T.: A map of the day-night contrast of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b. Nature 447, 183 (2007). doi: 10.1038/nature05782 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tinetti, G., Vidal-Madjar, A., Liang, M.C., Beaulieu, J.P., Yung, Y., Carey, S., Barber, R.J., Tennyson, J., Ribas, I., Allard, N., Ballester, G.E., Sing, D.K., Selsis, F.: Nature 448, 169 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tinetti, G., Deroo, P., Swain, M.R., Griffith, C.A., Vasisht, G., Brown, L.R., Burke, C., McCullough, P.: ApJ 712, L139 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Swain, M.R., Vasisht, G., Tinetti, G.: Nature 452, 329 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Beaulieu, J.P., Carey, S., Ribas, I., Tinetti, G.: Primary transit of the planet HD 189733b at 3.6 and 5.8 micron. ApJ 677, 1343 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Beaulieu, J.P., Kipping, D.M., Batista, V., Tinetti, G., Ribas, I., Carey, S., Noriega-Crespo, J.A., Griffith, C.A., Campanella, G., Dong, S., Tennyson, J., Barber, R.J., Deroo, P., Fossey, S.J., Liang, D., Swain, M.R., Yung, Y., Allard, N.: Water in HD 209458b’s atmosphere from 3.6–8 microns IRAC photometric observations in primary transit. MNRAS 409, 369 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Beaulieu, J.P., Tinetti, G., Kipping, D.M., Ribas, I., Barber, R.J., Cho, J.K., Polichtchouk, I., Tennyson, J., Yurchenko, S.N., Griffith, C.A., Batista, V., Waldmann, I., Miller, S., Carey, S., Mousis, O., Fossey, S.J., Aylward, A.: Methane in the atmosphere of the transiting hot Neptune GJ436b? ArXiv e-prints (2010)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Agol, E., Cowan, N.B., Knutson, H.A., Deming, D., Steffen, J.H., Henry, G.W., Charbonneau, D.: The Climate of HD 189733b from fourteen transits and eclipses measured by Spitzer. ApJ 721, 1861 (2010). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/721/2/1861 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Deming, D., Seager, S., Richardson, L.J., Harrington, J.: Nature 434, 740 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Charbonneau, D., Allen, L.E., Megeath, S.T., Torres, G., Alonso, R., Brown, T.M., Gilliland, R.L., Latham, D.W., Mandushev, G., O’Donovan, F.T., Sozzetti, A.: ApJ 626, 523 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Swain, M.R., Vasisht, G., Tinetti, G., Bouwman, J., Chen, P., Yung, Y., Deming, D., Deroo, P.: ApJ 960, L114 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Swain, M.R., Tinetti, G., Vasisht, G., Deroo, P., Griffith, C., Bouwman, J., Chen, P., Yung, Y., Burrows, A., Brown, L.R., Matthews, J., Roe, J.F., Kuschnig, R., Angerhausen, D.: ApJ 704, 1616 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Swain, M.R., Deroo, P., Griffith, C.A., Tinetti, G., Thatte, A., Vasishtand, G., Chen, P., Bouwman, J., Crossfield, I.J., Angerhausen, D., Afonso, C., Henning, T.: Nature 463, 637 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stevenson, K.B., Harrington, J., Nymeyer, S., Madhusudhan, N., Seager, S., Bowman, W.C., Hardy, R.A., Deming, D., Rauscher, E., Lust, N.B.: Possible thermochemical disequilibrium in the atmosphere of the exoplanet GJ 436b. Nature 464, 1161 (2010). doi: 10.1038/nature09013 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rowe, J.F., Matthews, J.M., Seager, S., Kuschnig, R., Guenther, D.B., Moffat, A.F.J., Rucinski, S.M., Sasselov, D., Walker, G.A.H., Weiss, W.W.: An upper limit on the Albedo of HD 209458b: direct imaging photometry with the MOST satellite. ApJ 646, 1241 (2006). doi: 10.1086/504252 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kipping, D.M., Spiegel, D.S.: Detection of visible light from the darkest world. MNRAS (2011)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Snellen, I.A.G., de Mooij, E.J.W., Albrecht, S.: The changing phases of extrasolar planet CoRoT-1b. Nature 459, 543 (2009). doi: 10.1038/nature08045 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kipping, D.M., Tinetti, G.: Nightside pollution of exoplanet transit depths. MNRAS 407, 2589 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rauscher, E., Menou, K., Cho, J., Seager, S., Hansen, B.M.S.: Hot Jupiter variability in eclipse depth. ApJ 662, L115 (2007). doi: 10.1086/519374 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cowan, N.B., Agol, E., Meadows, V.S., Robinson, T., Livengood, T.A., Deming, D., Lisse, C.M., A’Hearn, M.F., Wellnitz, D.D., Seager, S., Charbonneau, D., the EPOXI Team: Alien maps of an ocean-bearing World. ApJ 700, 915 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/915 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Goody, R.M., Yung, Y.L.: Atmospheric radiation: theoretical basis. In: Goody, R.M., Yung, Y.L. (eds.) Atmospheric Radiation: Theoretical Basis, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New York (1989)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hanel, R.A., Conrath, B.J., Jennings, D., Samuelson, R.E., Conrath, B.J., Jennings, D., Samuelson, R.E.: Book Review: Exploration of the Solar System by Infrared Remote Sensing, vol. 102. Cambridge University Press (1992)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Madhusudhan, N., Seager, S.: A temperature and abundance retrieval method for exoplanet atmospheres. ApJ 707, 24 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/24 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tinetti, G., Griffith, C.A., Swain, M.R., Deroo, P., Beaulieu, J.P., Vasisht, G., Kipping, D., Waldmann, I., Tennyson, J., Barber, R.J., Bouwman, J., Allard, N., Brown, L.R.: Exploring extrasolar worlds: from gas giants to terrestrial habitable planets. Faraday Discuss. 147, 369 (2010). doi: 10.1039/c005126h ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lee, J.M., Fletcher, L.N., Irwin, P.G.J.: Optimal estimation retrievals of the atmospheric structure and composition of HD 189733b from secondary eclipse spectroscopy. MNRAS 1983 (2011). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20013.x
  62. 62.
    Line, M.R., Zhang, X., Vaisht, G., Chen, P., Natraj, V., Chen, P., Yung, Y.L.: Information content of exoplanetary transit spectra: an initial look. ApJL (2011)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Walkowicz, L.M., Hawley, S.L.: Observations and models of quiescent M dwarf chromospheres. In: E. Stempels (ed.) American Institute of Physics Conference Series, vol. 1094, pp. 696–699 (2009). doi: 10.1063/1.3099209
  64. 64.
    Basri, G., Walkowicz, L.M., Batalha, N., Gilliland, R.L., Jenkins, J., Borucki, W.J., Koch, D., Caldwell, D., Dupree, A.K., Latham, D.W., Marcy, G.W., Meibom, S., Brown, T.: Photometric variability in Kepler target stars. II. An overview of amplitude, periodicity, and rotation in first quarter data. AJ 141, 20 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0004-6256/141/1/20 Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Casertano, S., Lattanzi, M.G., Sozzetti, A., Spagna, A., Jancart, S., Morbidelli, R., Pannunzio, R., Pourbaix, D., Queloz, D.: Double-blind test program for astrometric planet detection with Gaia. A&A 482, 699 (2008). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20078997 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sozzetti, A.: Astrometry and exoplanets: the Gaia era and beyond. In: EAS Publications Series, vol. 45, pp. 273–278. doi: 10.1051/eas/1045046
  67. 67.
    Bakos, G.Á., Lázár, J., Papp, I., Sári, P., Green, E.M.: System description and first light curves of the Hungarian automated telescope, an autonomous observatory for variability search. PASP 114, 974 (2002). doi: 10.1086/342382 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bakos, G., Afonso, C., Henning, T., Jordán, A., Holman, M., Noyes, R.W., Sackett, P.D., Sasselov, D., Kovács, G., Csubry, Z., Pál, A.: HAT-South: a Global network of southern Hemisphere automated telescopes to detect transiting exoplanets. In: IAU Symposium, vol. 253, pp. 354–357 (2009). doi: 10.1017/S174392130802663X
  69. 69.
    Pollacco, D.L., Skillen, I., Collier Cameron, A., Christian, D.J., Hellier, C., Irwin, J., Lister, T.A., Street, R.A., West, R.G., Anderson, D., Clarkson, W.I., Deeg, H., Enoch, B., Evans, A., Fitzsimmons, A., Haswell, C.A., Hodgkin, S., Horne, K., Kane, S.R., Keenan, F.P., Maxted, P.F.L., Norton, A.J., Osborne, J., Parley, N.R., Ryans, R.S.I., Smalley, B., Wheatley, P.J., Wilson, D.M.: The WASP project and the SuperWASP cameras. PASP 118, 1407 (2006). doi: 10.1086/508556 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    McCullough, P.R., Stys, J.E., Valenti, J.A., Fleming, S.W., Janes, K.A., Heasley, J.N.: The XO project: searching for transiting extrasolar planet candidates. PASP 117, 783 (2005). doi: 10.1086/432024 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gillon, M., Pont, F., Demory, B., Mallmann, F., Mayor, M., Mazeh, T., Queloz, D., Shporer, A., Udry, S., Vuissoz, C.: Detection of transits of the nearby hot Neptune GJ 436 b. A&A 472, L13 (2007). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20077799 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nutzman, P., Charbonneau, D.: Design considerations for a ground-based transit search for habitable planets orbiting M dwarfs. PASP 120, 317 (2008). doi: 10.1086/533420 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sozzetti, A., Lattanzi, M.G., Ligori, S., Smart, R.L., et al.: A pathway towards the characterization of habitable Earths (APACHE). In: Publications OATO (ed.) Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Internal Report, vol. 110, pp. 20–+ (2008)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lovis, C., Mayor, M., Bouchy, F., Pepe, F., Queloz, D., Udry, S., Benz, W., Mordasini, C.: Towards the characterization of the hot Neptune/super-Earth population around nearby bright stars. In: IAU Symposium, vol. 253, pp. 502–505 (2009)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Mandel, H., Caballero, J.A., Ribas, I., Reiners, A., Mundt, R., CARMENES Consortium: In: Coudé Du Foresto, V., Gelino, D.M., Ribas, I. (eds.) Pathways towards habitable planets. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 430, pp. 521–+ (2010)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pepe, F.A., Cristiani, S., Rebolo, R., Lopez, Santos, N.C., Amorim, A., Avila, G., Benz, W., Bonifacio, P., Cabral, A., Carvas, P., Cirami, R., Coelho, J., Comari, M., Coretti, I., de Caprio, V., Dekker, H., Delabre, B., di Marcantonio, P., D’Odorico, V., Fleury, M., García, R., Herreros Linares, J.M., Hughes, I., Iwert, O., Lima, J., Lizon, J.L., Lo Curto, G., Lovis, C., Manescau, A., Martins, C., Mégevand, D., Moitinho, A., Molaro, P., Monteiro, M., Monteiro, M., Pasquini, L., Mordasini, C., Queloz, D., Rasilla, J.L., Rebord ao, J.M., Santana Tschudi, S., Santin, P., Sosnowska, D., Spanò, P., Tenegi, F., Udry, S., Vanzella, E., Viel, M., Zapatero Osorio, M.R., Zerbi, F.: ESPRESSO: the Echelle spectrograph for rocky exoplanets and stable spectroscopic observations. In: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7735 (2010). doi: 10.1117/12.857122
  77. 77.
    Deleuil, M., Moutou, C., Bordé, P.: The CoRoT Exoplanet program: status & results. In: Bouchy, F., Díaz, R., Moutou, C. (eds.) Detection and Dynamics of Transiting Exoplanets, St. Michel l’Observatoire, France. EPJ Web of Conferences, vol. 11, id.01001 (2011). doi: 10.1051/epjconf/20101101001
  78. 78.
    Ricker, G.R., Latham, D.W., Vanderspek, R.K., Ennico, K.A., Bakos, G., Brown, T.M., Burgasser, A.J., Charbonneau, D., Deming, L.D., Doty, J.P., Dunham, E.W., Elliot, J.L., Holman, M.J., Ida, S., Jenkins, J.M., Jernigan, J.G., Kawai, N., Laughlin, G.P., Lissauer, J.J., Martel, F., Sasselov, D.D., Schingler, R.H., Seager, S., Torres, G., Udry, S., Villasenor, J.S., Winn, J.N., Worden, S.P.: The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). In: American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #213, vol. 41, p. 403.01. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2009)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Catala, C., PLATO Consortium: PLATO: PLAnetary transits and oscillations of stars. Journal of Physics Conference Series 118(1), 012040 (2008). doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/118/1/012040 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pilbratt, G.L., Riedinger, J.R., Passvogel, T., Crone, G., Doyle, D., Gageur, U., Heras, A.M., Jewell, C., L. Metcalfe, Ott, S., Schmidt, M.: Herschel Space Observatory. An ESA facility for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy. A&A 518, L1+ (2010). doi: 10.1051/0004-  6361/201014759 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Terrier, B., Delannoy, A., Chorier, P., Maillard, M., Rubaldo, L.: LWIR and VLWIR detectors development at SOFRADIR for space applications. In: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7826 (2010). doi: 10.1117/12.865053
  82. 82.
    Itsuno, A.M., Phillips, J.D., Velicu, S.: Design and modeling of HgCdTe nBn detectors. J. Electron. Mater. 40, 1624 (2011). doi: 10.1007/s11664-011-1614-0 Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Van Cleve, J.E., Herter, T.L., Butturini, R., Gull, G.E., Houck, J.R., Pirger, B., Schoenwald, J.: Evaluation of Si:As and Si:Sb blocked-impurity-band detectors for SIRTF and WIRE. In: Scholl, M.S., Andresen, B.F. (eds.) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 2553, pp. 502–513 (1995)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Planck Collaboration, Ade, P.A.R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Baker, M., Balbi, A., Banday, A.J., et al.: Planck early results: the thermal performance of Planck. ArXiv e-prints (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Tinetti
    • 1
  • J. P. Beaulieu
    • 2
  • T. Henning
    • 3
  • M. Meyer
    • 4
  • G. Micela
    • 5
  • I. Ribas
    • 6
  • D. Stam
    • 7
  • M. Swain
    • 8
  • O. Krause
    • 3
  • M. Ollivier
    • 9
  • E. Pace
    • 10
  • B. Swinyard
    • 11
  • A. Aylward
    • 1
  • R. van Boekel
    • 3
  • A. Coradini
    • 5
  • T. Encrenaz
    • 12
  • I. Snellen
    • 13
  • M. R. Zapatero-Osorio
    • 14
  • J. Bouwman
    • 3
  • J. Y-K. Cho
    • 15
  • V. Coudé de Foresto
    • 12
  • T. Guillot
    • 16
  • M. Lopez-Morales
    • 17
  • I. Mueller-Wodarg
    • 18
  • E. Palle
    • 19
  • F. Selsis
    • 20
  • A. Sozzetti
    • 5
  • P. A. R. Ade
    • 21
  • N. Achilleos
    • 1
  • A. Adriani
    • 5
  • C. B. Agnor
    • 15
  • C. Afonso
    • 3
  • C. Allende Prieto
    • 19
  • G. Bakos
    • 22
  • R. J. Barber
    • 1
  • M. Barlow
    • 1
  • V. Batista
    • 2
  • P. Bernath
    • 23
  • B. Bézard
    • 12
  • P. Bordé
    • 9
  • L. R. Brown
    • 8
  • A. Cassan
    • 2
  • C. Cavarroc
    • 9
  • A. Ciaravella
    • 5
  • C. Cockell
    • 24
  • A. Coustenis
    • 12
  • C. Danielski
    • 1
  • L. Decin
    • 25
  • R. De Kok
    • 7
  • O. Demangeon
    • 9
  • P. Deroo
    • 8
  • P. Doel
    • 1
  • P. Drossart
    • 12
  • L. N. Fletcher
    • 26
  • M. Focardi
    • 10
  • F. Forget
    • 27
  • S. Fossey
    • 1
  • P. Fouqué
    • 28
  • J. Frith
    • 29
  • M. Galand
    • 18
  • P. Gaulme
    • 9
  • J. I. González Hernández
    • 19
  • O. Grasset
    • 30
  • D. Grassi
    • 5
  • J. L. Grenfell
    • 31
  • M. J. Griffin
    • 21
  • C. A. Griffith
    • 32
  • U. Grözinger
    • 3
  • M. Guedel
    • 33
  • P. Guio
    • 1
  • O. Hainaut
    • 34
  • R. Hargreaves
    • 23
  • P. H. Hauschildt
    • 35
  • K. Heng
    • 4
  • D. Heyrovsky
    • 36
  • R. Hueso
    • 37
  • P. Irwin
    • 26
  • L. Kaltenegger
    • 3
  • P. Kervella
    • 12
  • D. Kipping
    • 38
  • T. T. Koskinen
    • 32
  • G. Kovács
    • 39
  • A. La Barbera
    • 5
  • H. Lammer
    • 40
  • E. Lellouch
    • 12
  • G. Leto
    • 41
  • M. Lopez Morales
    • 17
  • M. A. Lopez Valverde
    • 42
  • M. Lopez-Puertas
    • 43
  • C. Lovis
    • 44
  • A. Maggio
    • 45
  • J. P. Maillard
    • 2
  • J. Maldonado Prado
    • 46
  • J. B. Marquette
    • 2
  • F. J. Martin-Torres
    • 14
  • P. Maxted
    • 47
  • S. Miller
    • 1
  • S. Molinari
    • 10
  • D. Montes
    • 48
  • A. Moro-Martin
    • 14
  • J. I. Moses
    • 49
  • O. Mousis
    • 50
  • N. Nguyen Tuong
    • 12
  • R. Nelson
    • 15
  • G. S. Orton
    • 8
  • E. Pantin
    • 51
  • E. Pascale
    • 21
  • S. Pezzuto
    • 52
  • D. Pinfield
    • 29
  • E. Poretti
    • 53
  • R. Prinja
    • 1
  • L. Prisinzano
    • 54
  • J. M. Rees
    • 12
  • A. Reiners
    • 55
  • B. Samuel
    • 9
  • A. Sánchez-Lavega
    • 37
  • J. Sanz Forcada
    • 14
  • D. Sasselov
    • 38
  • G. Savini
    • 1
  • B. Sicardy
    • 12
  • A. Smith
    • 56
  • L. Stixrude
    • 1
  • G. Strazzulla
    • 41
  • J. Tennyson
    • 1
  • M. Tessenyi
    • 1
  • G. Vasisht
    • 8
  • S. Vinatier
    • 12
  • S. Viti
    • 1
  • I. Waldmann
    • 1
  • G. J. White
    • 57
  • T. Widemann
    • 12
  • R. Wordsworth
    • 27
  • R. Yelle
    • 32
  • Y. Yung
    • 58
  • S. N. Yurchenko
    • 1
  1. 1.University College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Institut d’Astrophysique de ParisParisFrance
  3. 3.Max Planck Institut fur AstronomieHeidelbergGermany
  4. 4.Eidgenossische Technische HochschuleZurichSwitzerland
  5. 5.INAF, PalermoRomaItaly
  6. 6.IEEC-CSICInstitut de Ciencies de l’EspaiBarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.SRON Netherlands Institute for Space ResearchUtrechtNetherlands
  8. 8.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryPasadenaUS
  9. 9.Institut d’Astrophysique SpatialeOrsayFrance
  10. 10.Un. FirenzeFlorenceItaly
  11. 11.UCL-RALDidcotUK
  12. 12.LESIA, Obs. de ParisMeudonFrance
  13. 13.University of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands
  14. 14.CABMadridSpain
  15. 15.QMULLondonUK
  16. 16.Obs. NiceNiceFrance
  17. 17.IEECBellaterraSpain
  18. 18.Imperial CollegeLondonUK
  19. 19.IACTenerifeSpain
  20. 20.Un. BordeauxBordeauxFrance
  21. 21.Cardiff UniversityCardiffUK
  22. 22.PrincetonNJUSA
  23. 23.University of YorkYorkUK
  24. 24.ROEEdinburghUK
  25. 25.IvSLeuvenBelgium
  26. 26.University of OxfordOxfordUK
  27. 27.LMDParisFrance
  28. 28.Obs-MIPToulouseFrance
  29. 29.UHHatfieldUK
  30. 30.Un. NantesNantesFrance
  31. 31.TUBBerlinGermany
  32. 32.UoATucsonUSA
  33. 33.Un. ViennaViennaAustria
  34. 34.ESOLa SillaChile
  35. 35.HSHamburgGermany
  36. 36.CU PraguePragueCzech Republic
  37. 37.EHU BilbaoBilbaoSpain
  38. 38.CfA-UCL, CfACambridgeUS
  39. 39.Konkoly Obs.BudapestHungary
  40. 40.Un. GrazGrazAustria
  41. 41.INAF/OACtCataniaItaly
  42. 42.IAA/CSICGranadaSpain
  43. 43.IAA-CSICGranadaSpain
  44. 44.Obs. GeneveGenevaSwitzerland
  45. 45.INAF/OAPaPalermoItaly
  46. 46.UAMMadridSpain
  47. 47.Un. KeeleKeeleUk
  48. 48.UCMMadridSpain
  49. 49.SSISeabrookUS
  50. 50.Obs. BesanconBesanconFrance
  51. 51.CEASaclayFrance
  52. 52.IFSI-INAFFlorenceItaly
  53. 53.INAF/OAMiMilanItaly
  54. 54.INAF-OAPaPalermoItaly
  55. 55.IAGGottinghenGermany
  56. 56.MSSLLondonUK
  57. 57.OU-RALDidcotUK
  58. 58.CaltechPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations