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Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 33, Issue 2–3, pp 337–363 | Cite as

EnVision: taking the pulse of our twin planet

  • Richard C. Ghail
  • Colin Wilson
  • Marina Galand
  • David Hall
  • Chris Cochrane
  • Philippa Mason
  • Joern Helbert
  • Franck MontMessin
  • Sanjay Limaye
  • Manish Patel
  • Neil Bowles
  • Daphne Stam
  • Jan-Erik Wahlund
  • Fabio Rocca
  • David Waltham
  • Tamsin A. Mather
  • Juliet Biggs
  • Matthew Genge
  • Philippe Paillou
  • Karl Mitchell
  • Lionel Wilson
  • Upendra N. Singh
Original Article

Abstract

EnVision is an ambitious but low-risk response to ESA’s call for a medium-size mission opportunity for a launch in 2022. Venus is the planet most similar to Earth in mass, bulk properties and orbital distance, but has evolved to become extremely hostile to life. EnVision’s 5-year mission objectives are to determine the nature of and rate of change caused by geological and atmospheric processes, to distinguish between competing theories about its evolution and to help predict the habitability of extrasolar planets. Three instrument suites will address specific surface, atmosphere and ionosphere science goals. The Surface Science Suite consists of a 2.2 m2 radar antenna with Interferometer, Radiometer and Altimeter operating modes, supported by a complementary IR surface emissivity mapper and an advanced accelerometer for orbit control and gravity mapping. This suite will determine topographic changes caused by volcanic, tectonic and atmospheric processes at rates as low as 1 mm a − 1. The Atmosphere Science Suite consists of a Doppler LIDAR for cloud top altitude, wind speed and mesospheric structure mapping, complemented by IR and UV spectrometers and a spectrophotopolarimeter, all designed to map the dynamic features and compositions of the clouds and middle atmosphere to identify the effects of volcanic and solar processes. The Ionosphere Science Suite uses a double Langmiur probe and vector magnetometer to understand the behaviour and long-term evolution of the ionosphere and induced magnetosphere. The suite also includes an interplanetary particle analyser to determine the delivery rate of water and other components to the atmosphere.

Keywords

Venus tectonics Venus atmosphere Venus ionosphere InSAR LIDAR 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank ESA for their thorough evaluation of this proposed mission and the valuable feedback provided.

Dr Mitchell’s was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard C. Ghail
    • 1
  • Colin Wilson
    • 2
  • Marina Galand
    • 1
  • David Hall
    • 3
  • Chris Cochrane
    • 1
  • Philippa Mason
    • 1
  • Joern Helbert
    • 4
  • Franck MontMessin
    • 5
  • Sanjay Limaye
    • 6
  • Manish Patel
    • 7
  • Neil Bowles
    • 2
  • Daphne Stam
    • 8
  • Jan-Erik Wahlund
    • 9
  • Fabio Rocca
    • 10
  • David Waltham
    • 11
  • Tamsin A. Mather
    • 12
  • Juliet Biggs
    • 13
  • Matthew Genge
    • 1
  • Philippe Paillou
    • 14
  • Karl Mitchell
    • 15
  • Lionel Wilson
    • 16
  • Upendra N. Singh
    • 17
  1. 1.Imperial College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.University of OxfordOxfordUK
  3. 3.AstriumPortsmouthUK
  4. 4.DLRBerlinDeutschland
  5. 5.LATMOSParisFrance
  6. 6.University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  7. 7.Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK
  8. 8.SRON Netherlands Institute for Space ResearchUtrechtNetherlands
  9. 9.Swedish Institute of Space PhysicsUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  10. 10.Politecnico di MilanoMilanItaly
  11. 11.Royal HollowayUniversity of LondonEghamUK
  12. 12.University of OxfordOxfordUK
  13. 13.University of BristolBristolUK
  14. 14.University of BordeauxFloiracFrance
  15. 15.Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  16. 16.Lancaster UniversityLancasterUK
  17. 17.NASA Langley Research CenterHamptonUSA

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