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Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 33, Issue 2–3, pp 645–684 | Cite as

MarcoPolo-R near earth asteroid sample return mission

  • Maria Antonietta Barucci
  • A. F. Cheng
  • P. Michel
  • L. A. M. Benner
  • R. P. Binzel
  • P. A. Bland
  • H. Böhnhardt
  • J. R. Brucato
  • A. Campo Bagatin
  • P. Cerroni
  • E. Dotto
  • A. Fitzsimmons
  • I. A. Franchi
  • S. F. Green
  • L.-M. Lara
  • J. Licandro
  • B. Marty
  • K. Muinonen
  • A. Nathues
  • J. Oberst
  • A. S. Rivkin
  • F. Robert
  • R. Saladino
  • J. M. Trigo-Rodriguez
  • S. Ulamec
  • M. Zolensky
Article

Abstract

MarcoPolo-R is a sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) proposed in collaboration with NASA. It will rendezvous with a primitive NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. MarcoPolo-R will return bulk samples (up to 2 kg) from an organic-rich binary asteroid to Earth for laboratory analyses, allowing us to: explore the origin of planetary materials and initial stages of habitable planet formation; identify and characterize the organics and volatiles in a primitive asteroid; understand the unique geomorphology, dynamics and evolution of a binary NEA. This project is based on the previous Marco Polo mission study, which was selected for the Assessment Phase of the first round of Cosmic Vision. Its scientific rationale was highly ranked by ESA committees and it was not selected only because the estimated cost was higher than the allotted amount for an M class mission. The cost of MarcoPolo-R will be reduced to within the ESA medium mission budget by collaboration with APL (John Hopkins University) and JPL in the NASA program for coordination with ESA’s Cosmic Vision Call. The baseline target is a binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. A binary target also provides enhanced science return. The choice of this target will allow new investigations to be performed more easily than at a single object, and also enables investigations of the fascinating geology and geophysics of asteroids that are impossible at a single object. Several launch windows have been identified in the time-span 2020–2024. A number of other possible primitive single targets of high scientific interest have been identified covering a wide range of possible launch dates. The baseline mission scenario of MarcoPolo-R to 1996 FG3 is as follows: a single primary spacecraft provided by ESA, carrying the Earth Re-entry Capsule, sample acquisition and transfer system provided by NASA, will be launched by a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from Kourou into GTO and using two space segment stages. Two similar missions with two launch windows, in 2021 and 2022 and for both sample return in 2029 (with mission duration of 7 and 8 years), have been defined. Earlier or later launches, in 2020 or 2024, also offer good opportunities. All manoeuvres are carried out by a chemical propulsion system. MarcoPolo-R takes advantage of three industrial studies completed as part of the previous Marco Polo mission (see ESA/SRE (2009)3, Marco Polo Yellow Book) and of the expertise of the consortium led by Dr. A.F. Cheng (PI of the NASA NEAR Shoemaker mission) of the JHU-APL, including JPL, NASA ARC, NASA LaRC, and MIT.

Keywords

Astrobiology Near-Earth Asteroid Origin Primitive material Sample return mission Re-entry capsule 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to all European supporters of MarcoPolo-R (560 on April 18th, 2011). The list is continuously updated on the following web site: http://www.oca.eu/MarcoPolo-R/ (click on Community).

The mission design takes advantages of the ESA assessment study phase of the former Marco Polo project in 2008–2009 including the related three industrial studies. For this proposal, we acknowledge the contribution of the following European industrial teams: Astrium Ltd, OHB, GMV, Thales Alenia Space. Some components are based on work by APL and JPL funded by NASA under the Science Mission Directorate Research and Analysis Programs.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Antonietta Barucci
    • 1
  • A. F. Cheng
    • 2
  • P. Michel
    • 3
  • L. A. M. Benner
    • 4
  • R. P. Binzel
    • 5
  • P. A. Bland
    • 6
  • H. Böhnhardt
    • 7
  • J. R. Brucato
    • 8
  • A. Campo Bagatin
    • 9
  • P. Cerroni
    • 10
  • E. Dotto
    • 11
  • A. Fitzsimmons
    • 12
  • I. A. Franchi
    • 13
  • S. F. Green
    • 13
  • L.-M. Lara
    • 14
  • J. Licandro
    • 15
  • B. Marty
    • 16
  • K. Muinonen
    • 17
    • 18
  • A. Nathues
    • 7
  • J. Oberst
    • 19
  • A. S. Rivkin
    • 2
  • F. Robert
    • 20
  • R. Saladino
    • 21
  • J. M. Trigo-Rodriguez
    • 22
  • S. Ulamec
    • 23
  • M. Zolensky
    • 24
  1. 1.Paris ObservatoryLESIAMeudon Principal CedexFrance
  2. 2.Applied Physics LaboratoryJohn Hopkins UniversityLaurelUSA
  3. 3.CNRS, Côte d’Azur ObservatoryUniversity of Nice-Sophia AntipolisNiceFrance
  4. 4.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  5. 5.Massachussetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  6. 6.Imperial CollegeLondonUK
  7. 7.Max Planck Institute for Solar System ResearchKatlenburg-LindauGermany
  8. 8.Osservatorio Astrofisico di ArcetriINAFFirenzeItaly
  9. 9.Universidad de AlicanteAlicanteSpain
  10. 10.Instituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica CosmicaINAFRomeItaly
  11. 11.Osservatorio di RomaINAFMonte Porzio CatoneItaly
  12. 12.Queen’s University BelfastBelfastUK
  13. 13.PSSRI – The Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK
  14. 14.Instituto de Astrofisca de AndaluciaCSICGranadaSpain
  15. 15.Instituto di Astrofisica de Canarias & Dep. de AstrofisicaUniversidad de La LagunaLa LagunaSpain
  16. 16.Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et GéochimiquesCNRSFrance
  17. 17.University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  18. 18.FGIHelsinkiFinland
  19. 19.DLRBerlinGermany
  20. 20.Museum National d’Histoire NaturelleParisFrance
  21. 21.Università di TusciaViterboItaly
  22. 22.Institut d’Estudis Espacials de CatalunyaCSICBarcelonaSpain
  23. 23.DLR RB – MCCologneGermany
  24. 24.Johnson Space CenterNASAHoustonUSA

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