Advertisement

Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 29, Issue 1–2, pp 55–84 | Cite as

Instruments of RT-2 experiment onboard CORONAS-PHOTON and their test and evaluation III: Coded Aperture Mask and Fresnel Zone Plates in RT-2/CZT payload

  • Anuj Nandi
  • S. Palit
  • D. Debnath
  • Sandip K. ChakrabartiEmail author
  • T. B. Kotoch
  • R. Sarkar
  • Vipin K. Yadav
  • V. Girish
  • A. R. Rao
  • D. Bhattacharya
Original Article

Abstract

Imaging in hard X-rays of any astrophysical source with high angular resolution is a challenging job. Shadow-casting technique is one of the most viable options for imaging in hard X-rays. We have used two different types of shadow-casters, namely, Coded Aperture Mask (CAM) and Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) pair and two types of pixellated solid-state detectors, namely, CZT and CMOS in RT-2/CZT payload, the hard X-ray imaging instrument onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. In this paper, we present the results of simulations with different combinations of coders (CAM & FZP) and detectors that are employed in the RT-2/CZT payload. We discuss the possibility of detecting transient Solar flares with good angular resolution for various combinations. Simulated results are compared with laboratory experiments to verify the consistency of the designed configuration.

Keywords

Zone plates X- and gamma-ray telescopes and instrumentation Fourier optics X-ray imaging 

Notes

Acknowledgements

SP and DD thank CSIR/NET scholarships and RS and TBK thank RT-2/SRF fellowship (ISRO) which supported their research work. The authors are thankful to scientists, engineers and technical staffs from TIFR/ICSP/VSSC/ISRO-HQ for various supports during RT-2 related experiments.

References

  1. 1.
    Ables, J.G.: Fourier transform photography: a new method for X-ray astronomy. Proc. Astron. Soc. Australia 1, 172 (1968)ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ajello, M., Greiner, J., Kanbach, G., Rau, A., Strong, A.W., Kennea, J.A.: BAT X-Ray survey. I. Methodology and X-ray identification. ApJ 678, 102 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barrett, H.H., Myers, K.J.: Foundations of Image Science. Wiley, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baker, R.E., Carter, J.N., Charalambous, P., Court, A.J., Dean, A.J., Barbareschi, L., Bazzano, A., Butler, R.C., Caroli, E., Catani, O.: An imaging telescope for soft gamma-ray astronomy - the preliminary in-flight tests. Adv. Space Res. 3, 95 (1983)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Caroli, E., Stephen, J.B., Di Cocco, G., Natalucci, L., Spizzichino, A.: Coded aperture imaging in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. SSR 45, 349 (1987)ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chakrabarti, S.K., Palit, S., Debnath, D., Nandi, A., Yadav, V., Sarkar, R.: Fresnel zone plate telescope for X-ray imaging I: experiments with a quasi-parallel beam. Exp. Astron 24, 109 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Debnath, D., Nandi, A., Rao, A.R., Malkar, J.P., Hingar, M.K., Kotoch, T.B., Sreekumar, S., Madhav, V.P., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Instruments of RT-2 experiment onboard CORONAS-PHOTON and their test and evaluation I: RT-2/S and RT-2/G payloads. Exp. Astron. 29(1–2), 1–25 (2010)ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Desai, U., Orwig, L.E., Piquet, L., Gaither, C.C.: X-ray telescope for small satellites. In: Korendyke, C.M. (ed.) Missions to the Sun II. Proc. SPIE, vol. 3442, p. 94 (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dicke, R.H.: Scatter hole cameras for X-ray and gamma-rays. ApJ 153, L101 (1968)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fenimore, E.E., Cannon, T.M.: Coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays. APO 17, 337 (1978)ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gunson, J., Polychronopulos, B.: Optimum design of a coded mask X-ray telescope for rocket applications. MNRAS 177, 485 (1976)ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    In ’t Zand, J.J.M.: A coded-mask imager as monitor of galactic X-ray sources. Ph.D. thesis, University of Utrecht (1992)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kotoch, T.B., Nandi, A., Debnath, D., Malkar, J.P., Rao, A.R., Hingar, M.K., Madhav, V.P., Sreekumar, S., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Instruments of RT-2 experiment onboard CORONAS-PHOTON and their test and evaluation II: RT-2/CZT payload. Exp. Astron. 29(1–2), 27–54 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kotov, Yu., Kochemasov, A., Kuzin, S., Kuznetsov, V., Sylwester, J., Yurov, V.: Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon. In: 37th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, in Montreal, Canada, p. 1596 (2008)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lin, R.P., Krucker, S., Hurford, G.J., Smith, D.M., Hudson, H.S., Holman, G.D., Schwartz, R.A., Dennis, B.R., Share, G.H., Murphy, R.J., Emslie, A.G., Johns-Krull, C., Vilmer, N.: Rhessi observations of particle acceleration and energy release in an intense solar Gamma-ray line flare. ApJ 595, L69 (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mertz, L.: Transformation in Optics. Wiley, New York (1965)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mertz, L., Young, N.O.: Fresnel transformation of images. In: Habell, K.J. (ed.) Proc. Int. Conf. on Opt. Instrum. Techniques, vol. 305. Chapman and Hall, London (1961)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nandi, A., Rao, A.R., Chakrabarti, S.K., et. al.: Indian payloads (RT-2 experiment) onboard CORONAS-PHOTON mission. In: Lampropoulos, G., Petrou, M. (eds.) Proc. of International Conference on Space Technology, Greece (2009). arXiv:0912.4126
  19. 19.
    Palit, S., Chakrabarti, S.K., Debnath, D., Rao, A.R., Nandi, A., Yadav, V.K., Girish, V.: Fresnel zone plate telescopes for X-ray imaging II: numerical simulations with parallel and diverging beams. Exp. Astron. 27, 77 (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peterson, W.W.: Error Correcting Codes. MIT Press, MA (1961)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sarkar, R., Mandal, S., Debnath, D., Kotoch, T.B., Nandi, A., Rao, A.R., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Instruments of RT-2 experiment onboard CORONAS-PHOTON and their test and evaluation IV: background simulations using GEANT-4 toolkit. Exp. Astron. 29(1–2), 85–107 (2010)ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sreekumar, S., Vinod, P., Samuel, E., Malkar, J.P., Rao, A.R., Hingar, M.K., Madhav, V.P., Debnath, D., Kotoch, T.B., Nandi, A., Begum, S.S., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Instruments of RT-2 experiment onboard CORONAS-PHOTON and their test and evaluation V: onboard software, data structure, telemetry and telecommand. Exp. Astron. 29(1–2), 109–133 (2010)ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anuj Nandi
    • 1
  • S. Palit
    • 1
  • D. Debnath
    • 1
  • Sandip K. Chakrabarti
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • T. B. Kotoch
    • 1
  • R. Sarkar
    • 1
  • Vipin K. Yadav
    • 1
  • V. Girish
    • 3
  • A. R. Rao
    • 4
  • D. Bhattacharya
    • 5
  1. 1.Indian Centre for Space PhysicsKolkataIndia
  2. 2.S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic SciencesKolkataIndia
  3. 3.Space Astronomy and Instrumentation DivisionISACBangaloreIndia
  4. 4.Tata Institute of Fundamental ResearchMumbaiIndia
  5. 5.Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and AstrophysicsPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations