Experimental Astronomy

, Volume 19, Issue 1–3, pp 111–134 | Cite as

CMOS Detector Technology

  • Alan Hoffman
  • Markus Loose
  • Vyshnavi Suntharalingam


An entry level overview of state-of-the-art CMOS detector technology is presented. Operating principles and system architecture are explained in comparison to the well-established CCD technology, followed by a discussion of important benefits of modern CMOS-based detector arrays. A number of unique CMOS features including different shutter modes and scanning concepts are described. In addition, sub-field stitching is presented as a technique for producing very large imagers. After a brief introduction to the concept of monolithic CMOS sensors, hybrid detectors technology is introduced. A comparison of noise reduction methods for CMOS hybrids is presented. The final sections review CMOS fabrication processes for monolithic and vertically integrated image sensors.


APS active pixel sensor CCD CMOS focal plane array HgCdTe hybrid image sensor InSb three-dimensionally stacked circuits vertical integration 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Hoffman
    • 1
  • Markus Loose
    • 2
  • Vyshnavi Suntharalingam
    • 3
  1. 1.Raytheon Vision SystemsGoletaUSA
  2. 2.Rockwell Scientific CompanyThousand OaksUSA
  3. 3.MIT Lincoln LaboratoryLexingtonUSA

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