Advertisement

Evolutionary Ecology

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 593–617 | Cite as

Parents, predators, parasites, and the evolution of eggshell colour in open nesting birds

  • Daniel Hanley
  • Phillip Cassey
  • Stéphanie M. Doucet
Original Paper

Abstract

The colourful surface of birds’ eggshells varies dramatically between species, but the selective pressures driving this variation remain poorly understood. We used a large comparative dataset to test several hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of eggshell colouration. We tested the hypothesis that predation pressure might select for cryptic eggshells by examining the relationship between predation rate and egg colouration. We found that predation rates were positively related to eggshell brightness. The blackmail hypothesis suggests that females lay colourful eggshells to coerce males into providing additional care during incubation to keep colourful eggs covered. According to this hypothesis, conspicuous eggs should be found in situations with high risk of visual detection from predators or brood parasites. In support of this hypothesis, proportional blue-green chroma was positively related to parasitism risk, and eggs with higher proportional blue-green chroma or higher ultraviolet chroma received higher combined parental nest attendance during the incubation period. The sexual signalling hypothesis states that blue-green colour indicates female quality; however, we did not find that blue-green eggshell colour was greater in species where males participate in any form of parental care, and relative male provisioning was unrelated to blue-green eggshell chroma. We found some support for the hypothesis that brood parasitism may select for high inter-clutch variation in eggshell colour to facilitate egg recognition. In our dataset, parasitism risk was negatively related to inter-clutch repeatability of blue-green chroma. Our study highlights the diversity of selection pressures acting on the evolution of eggshell colour in birds and provides suggestions for novel areas of future key research direction.

Keywords

Blackmail hypothesis Egg colour Egg recognition Evolution Parasitism Predation Sexual signalling hypothesis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We greatly appreciate the assistance provided by the curatorial staff and assistants at natural history collections: J. Hinshaw and R. Payne (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology), P. Sweet, P. Capainolo, and J. Cracraft (American Museum of Natural History), and D. Willard and J. Bates (the Field Museum). We are also grateful for the helpful comments made by J. Endler, and two anonymous reviewers, and the assistance provided by T. M. Blackburn, J. G. Ewen, D. G. D. Russell, and R. L. Boulton (the National Museum at Tring). We thank S. S. Baker, P.-P. Bitton, J. Cuthbert, K. G. Drouillard, D. C. Lahti, D. J. Mennill, T. E. Pitcher, and K.-A. A. Ward for comments on the manuscript. We are grateful for funding from the American Museum of Natural History, the Chapman Fund, and the Field Museum (to DH) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (to SMD). PC is an ARC Future Fellow.

Supplementary material

10682_2012_9619_MOESM1_ESM.docx (4.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 4211 kb)

References

  1. Antonov A, Stokke BG, Moksnes A, Røskaft E (2009) Evidence for egg discrimination preceding failed rejection attempts in a small cuckoo host. Biol Lett 5:169–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Avilés JM, Møller AP (2003) Meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis) egg appearance in cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) sympatric and allopatric populations. Biol J Linn Soc 79:543–549Google Scholar
  3. Avilés JM, Soler JJ, Soler M, Møller AP (2004) Rejection of parasitic eggs in relation to egg appearance in magpies. Anim Behav 67:951–958Google Scholar
  4. Avilés JM, Stokke BG, Moksnes A, Røskaft E, Møller AP (2006a) Nest predation and the evolution of egg appearance in passerine birds in Europe and North America. Evol Ecol Res 8:493–513Google Scholar
  5. Avilés JM, Soler JJ, Pérez-Contreras T (2006b) Dark nests and egg colour in birds: a possible functional role of ultraviolet reflectance in egg detectability. Proc R Soc Lond B 273:2821–2829Google Scholar
  6. Avilés JM, Vikan JR, Fossoy F, Antonov A, Moksnes A, Røskaft E, Stokke BG (2010) Avian colour perception predicts behavioural responses to experimental brood parasitism in chaffinches. J Evol Biol 23:293–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blanco G, Bertellotti M (2002) Differential predation by mammals and birds: implications for egg-colour polymorphism in a nomadic breeding seabird. Biol J Linn Soc 75:137–146Google Scholar
  8. Bosque C, Bosque MT (1995) Nest predation as a selective factor in the evolution of developmental rates in altricial birds. Am Nat 145:234–260Google Scholar
  9. Brennan PLR (2010) Clutch predation in great tinamous Tinamus major and implications for the evolution of egg color. J Avian Biol 41:419–426Google Scholar
  10. Cassey P (2009) Biological optics: seeing colours in the dark. Curr Biol 19:R1083–R1084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cassey P, Portugal SJ, Maurer G, Ewen JG, Boulton RL, Hauber ME, Blackburn TM (2010a) Variability in avian eggshell colour: a comparative study of museum eggshells. PLoS ONE 5:e12054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cassey P, Maurer G, Duval C, Ewan JG, Hauber ME (2010b) Impact of time since collection on avian eggshell color: a comparison of museum and fresh egg specimens. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 64:1711–1720Google Scholar
  13. Castilla AM, Dhondt AA, Díaz-Uriarte R, Westmoreland D (2007) Predation in ground-nesting birds: an experimental study using natural egg color variation. ACE-ÉCO 2:2Google Scholar
  14. Cherry MI, Gosler AG (2010) Avian eggshell coloration: new perspectives on adaptive explanations. Biol J Linn Soc 100:753–762Google Scholar
  15. Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  16. Collias EC, Collias NE (1984) Nest building and bird behavior. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  17. Cook MI, Beissinger SR, Toranzos GA, Rodriguez RA, Arendt WJ (2003) Trans-shell infection by pathogenic micro-organisms reduces the shelf life of non-incubated bird’s eggs: a constraint on the onset of incubation? Proc R Soc Lond Seri B Biol Sci 270:2233–2240Google Scholar
  18. Cook MI, Beissinger SR, Toranzos GA, Arendt WJ (2005a) Incubation reduces microbial growth on eggshells and the opportunity for trans-shell infection. Ecol Lett 8:532–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cook MI, Beissinger SR, Toranzos GA, Rodriguez RA, Arendt WJ (2005b) Microbial infection affects egg viability and incubation behavior in a tropical passerine. Behav Ecol 16:30–36Google Scholar
  20. Cott HB (1948) Edibility of the eggs of birds. Nature 161:8–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Davies NB (2000) Cuckoos, cowbirds, and other cheats. T. & A. D. Poyser, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Davies NB, Brooke MD (1989) An experimental study of co-evolution between the cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, and its hosts.1. Host egg discrimination. J Anim Ecol 58:207–224Google Scholar
  23. de Cock Buning T (1983) Thermal sensitivity as a specialization for prey capture and feeding in snakes. Am Zool 23:363–373Google Scholar
  24. Edwards LJ, Muller KE, Wolfinger RD, Qaqish BF, Schabenberger O (2008) An R2 statistic for fixed effects in the linear mixed model. Stat Med 27:6137–6157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ericson PGP, Anderson CL, Britton T, Elzanowski A, Johansson US, Kallersjö M, Ohlson JI, Parsons TJ, Zuccon D, Mayr G (2006) Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biol Lett 2:543–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Freckleton RP (2009) The seven deadly sins of comparative analysis. J Evol Biol 22:1367–1375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Freckleton RP, Harvey PH, Pagel M (2002) Phylogenetic analysis and comparative data: a test and review of evidence. Am Nat 160:712–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Garamszegi LZ, Møller AP (2010) Effects of sample size and intraspecific variation in phylogenetic comparative studies: a meta-analytic review. Biol Rev 85:797–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gaston AJ, De Forest LN, Noble DG (1993) Egg recognition and egg stealing in murres (Uria spp.). Anim Behav 45:301–306Google Scholar
  30. Gorchein A, Lim CK, Cassey P (2009) Extraction and analysis of colourful eggshell pigments using HPLC and HPLC/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Biomed Chromatogr 23:602–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gosler AG, Higham JP, Reynolds SJ (2005) Why are birds’ eggs speckled? Ecol Lett 8:1105–1113Google Scholar
  32. Götmark F (1992) Blue eggs do not reduce nest predation in song thrush Turdus philomelos. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 30:245–252Google Scholar
  33. Götmark F (1993) Conspicuous nests may select for non-cryptic eggs: a comparative study of avian families. Ornis Fennica 70:102–105Google Scholar
  34. Grim T, Rutila J, Cassey P, Hauber ME (2009) The cost of virulence: an experimental study of egg eviction by brood parasitic chicks. Behav Ecol 20:1138–1146Google Scholar
  35. Grim T, Samas P, Moskat C, Kleven O, Honza M, Moksnes A, Roskaft E, Stokke BG (2011) Constraints on host choice: why do parasitic birds rarely exploit some common potential hosts? J Anim Ecol 80:508–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hackett SJ, Kimball RT, Reddy S, Bowie RCK, Braun EL, Braun MJ, Chojnowski JL, Cox WA, Han KL, Harshman J, Huddleston CJ, Marks BD, Miglia KJ, Moore WS, Sheldon FH, Steadman DW, Witt CC, Yuri T (2008) A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320:1763–1768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hanley D, Heiber G, Dearborn DC (2008) Testing an assumption of the sexual-signaling hypothesis: does blue-green egg color reflect maternal antioxidant capacity? Condor 110:767–771Google Scholar
  38. Hanley D, Doucet SM, Dearborn DC (2010) A blackmail hypothesis for the evolution of conspicuous egg coloration in birds. Auk 127:453–459Google Scholar
  39. Hart NS (2001) The visual ecology of avian photoreceptors. Prog Retin Eye Res 20:675–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Holveck M-J, Doultrelant C, Guerreiro R, Perret P, Gomez D, Grégoire A (2010) Can eggs in a cavity be a female secondary sexual signal? Male nest visits and modelling of egg visual discrimination in blue tits. Biol Lett 6:453–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Honza M, Environment P, Morongová K, Čapek M, Jelínek V (2011) Do nest light conditions affect rejection of parasitic eggs? A test of the light environment hypothesis. Ethology 117:539–546Google Scholar
  42. Huhta E, Rytkonen S, Solonen T (2003) Plumage brightness of prey increases predation risk: an among-species comparison. Ecology 84:1793–1799Google Scholar
  43. Hunt S, Kilner RM, Langmore NE, Bennett ATD (2003) Conspicuous, ultraviolet-rich mouth colours in begging chicks. Proc R Soc Lond B 270:S25–S28Google Scholar
  44. Ihaka R, Gentleman R (1996) R: A language for data analysis and graphics. J Comput Graph Stat 5:299–314Google Scholar
  45. Ishikawa S, Suzuki K, Fukuda E, Arihara K, Yamamoto Y, Mukai T, Itoh M (2010) Photodynamic antimicrobial activity of avian eggshell pigments. FEBS Lett 584:770–774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jacobs GH (1992) Ultraviolet vision in vertebrates. Am Zool 32:544–554Google Scholar
  47. Jacobs GH (1993) The distribution and nature of color vision among the mammals. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 68:413–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Jagannath A, Shore RF, Walker LA, Ferns PN, Gosler AG (2008) Eggshell pigmentation indicates pesticide contamination. J Appl Ecol 45:133–140Google Scholar
  49. Jones MP, Pierce KE, Ward D (2007) Avian vision: a review of form and function with special consideration to birds of prey. J Exotic Pet Med 16:69–87Google Scholar
  50. Jønsson KA, Fjeldså J (2006) A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves: Passeri). Zoolog Scr 35:149–186Google Scholar
  51. Jourdie V, Moureau B, Bennett ATD, Heeb P (2004) Ultraviolet reflectance by the skin of nestlings. Nature 431:262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kaur H, Hughes MN, Green CJ, Naughton P, Foresti R, Motterlini R (2003) Interaction of bilirubin and biliverdin with reactive nitrogen species. FEBS Lett 543:113–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kelber A, Vorobyev M, Osorio D (2003) Animal colour vision—behavioural tests and physiological concepts. Biol Rev 78:81–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kendeigh SC (1952) Parental care and its evolution in birds. Ill Biol Monogr 22:1–356Google Scholar
  55. Kennedy GY, Vevers HG (1976) A survey of avian eggshell pigments. Comp Biochem Physiol 55:117–123Google Scholar
  56. Kilner RM (2006) The evolution of egg colour and patterning in birds. Biol Rev 81:383–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kim C-H, Yamagishi S, Won P-O (1995) Egg-color dimorphism and breeding success in the crow tit (Paradoxornis webbiana). Auk 112:831–839Google Scholar
  58. Kirk EC, Kay RF (2004) The evolution of high visual acuity in the Anthropoidea. In: Ross C, Kay R (eds) Anthropoid origins: new visions. Kluwer/Plenum, New York, pp 539–602Google Scholar
  59. Lack D (1958) The significance of the colour of Turdine eggs. Ibis 100:145–166Google Scholar
  60. Lahti DC (2005) Evolution of bird eggs in the absence of cuckoo parasitism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:18057–18062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lahti DC (2008) Population differentiation and rapid evolution of egg color in accordance with solar radiation. Auk 125:796–802Google Scholar
  62. Langmore NE, Kilner RM, Butchart SHM, Maurer G, Davies NB, Cockburn A, Macgregor NA, Peters A, Magrath MJL, Dowling DK (2005) The evolution of egg rejection by cuckoo hosts in Australia and Europe. Behav Ecol 16:686–692Google Scholar
  63. Langmore NE, Cockburn A, Russell AF, Kilner RM (2009) Flexible cuckoo chick-rejection rules in the superb fairy-wren. Behav Ecol 20:978–984Google Scholar
  64. Lapointe FJ, Legendre P (1991) The generation of random ultrametric matrices representing dendrograms. J Classif 8:177–200Google Scholar
  65. Lessells CM, Boag PT (1987) Unrepeatable repeatabilities—a common mistake. Auk 104:116–121Google Scholar
  66. Lopez-de-Hierro MDG, Moreno-Rueda G (2010) Egg-spot pattern rather than egg colour affects conspecific egg rejection in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 64:317–324Google Scholar
  67. Magige FJ, Moe B, Røskaft E (2008) The white colour of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) egg is a trade-off between predation and overheating. J Ornithol 149:323–328Google Scholar
  68. Martin TE (1993) Nest predation among vegetation layers and habitat types—revising the dogmas. Am Nat 141:897–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Martin TE (1995) Avian life history evolution in relation to nest sites, nest predation, and food. Ecol Monogr 65:101–127Google Scholar
  70. Martin TE, Auer SK, Bassar RD, Niklison AM, Lloyd P (2007) Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature. Evolution 61:2558–2569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mayer PM, Smith LM, Ford RG, Watterson DC, McCutchen MD, Ryan MR (2009) Nest construction by a ground-nesting bird represents a potential trade-off between egg crypticity and thermoregulation. Oecologia 159:893–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McAldowie AM (1886) Observations on the development and the decay of the pigment layer on birds’ eggs. J Anat Physiol 20:225–237Google Scholar
  73. Møller AP, Jennions MD (2002) How much variance can be explained by ecologists and evolutionary biologists? Oecologia 132:492–500Google Scholar
  74. Møller AP, Petrie M (1991) Evolution of intraspecific variability in birds’ eggs: is intraspecific nest parasitism the selective agent? Proc Int Ornithol Congr 20:1041–1048Google Scholar
  75. Montgomerie R (2006) Analyzingcolors. In: Hill GE, McGraw KJ (eds) Bird coloration. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 90–148Google Scholar
  76. Montgomerie R (2008) CLR, version 1.05. Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada. Available at http://post.queensu.ca/~mont/color/analyze.html)
  77. Morales J, Velando A, Moreno J (2008) Pigment allocation to eggs decreases plasma antioxidants in a songbird. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:227–233Google Scholar
  78. Moreno J, Osorno JL (2003) Avian egg colour and sexual selection: does eggshell pigmentation reflect female condition and genetic quality? Ecol Lett 6:803–806Google Scholar
  79. Moreno J, Morales J, Lobato E, Tomás G, Martínez-de la Puente J (2006a) More colorful eggs induce a higher relative paternal investment in the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca: a cross-fostering experiment. J Avian Biol 37:555–560Google Scholar
  80. Moreno J, Lobato E, Morales J, Merino S, Tomás G, Martínez-de la Puente J, Sanz JJ, Mateo R, Soler JJ (2006b) Experimental evidence that egg color indicates female condition at laying in a songbird. Behav Ecol 17:651–655Google Scholar
  81. Moskat C, Szentpeteri J, Barta Z (2002) Adaptations by great reed warblers brood parasitism: a comparison of populations in sympatry and allopatry with the common cuckoo. Behaviour 139:1313–1329Google Scholar
  82. Moskat C, Aviles JM, Ban M, Hargitai R, Zolei A (2008) Experimental support for the use of egg uniformity in parasite egg discrimination by cuckoo hosts. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 62:1885–1890Google Scholar
  83. Nakagawa S, Cuthill IC (2007) Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists. Biol Rev 82:591–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Øien IJ, Moksnes A, Roskaft E (1995) Evolution of variation in egg color and marking pattern in European Passerines - Adaptations in a coevolutionary arms-race with the cuckoo, Cuculus Canorus. Behav Ecol 6:166–174Google Scholar
  85. Oniki Y (1985) Why robin eggs are blue and birds build nests: statistical tests for Amazonian birds. In Buckley PA, Foster MS, Morton ES, Ridgely RS, Buckley FG (eds) Neotropical ornithology. Ornithological Monographs, pp 536–545Google Scholar
  86. Pagel M (1997) Inferring evolutionary processes from phylogenies. Zoolog Scr 26:331–348Google Scholar
  87. Pagel M (1999) Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution. Nature 401:877–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Polacikova L, Hauber ME, Prochazka P, Cassey P, Honza M, Grim T (2011) A sum of its individual parts? Relative contributions of different eggshell regions to intraclutch variation in birds. J Avian Biol 42:370–373Google Scholar
  89. Reynolds SJ, Martin GR, Cassey P (2009) Is sexual selection blurring the functional significance of eggshell coloration hypotheses? Anim Behav 78:209–215Google Scholar
  90. Ricklefs RE (1969) An analysis of nesting mortality in birds. Smithson Contrib Zool 9:1–48Google Scholar
  91. Rothstein SI (1982) Mechanisms of avian egg recognition—which egg parameters elicit responses by rejecter species. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 11:229–239Google Scholar
  92. Šálek M, Cepáková E (2006) Do northern lapwings Vanellus vanellus and little ringed plovers Charadrius dubius rely on egg crypsis during incubation? Folia Zool 55:43–51Google Scholar
  93. Sánchez JM, Corbacho C, del Viejo AM, Parejo D (2004) Colony-site tenacity and egg color crypsis in the gull-billed tern. Waterbirds 27:21–30Google Scholar
  94. Sanz JJ, García-Navas V (2009) Eggshell pigmentation pattern in relation to breeding performance of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus. J Anim Ecol 78:31–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Siefferman L (2006) Egg coloration and recognition of conspecific brood parasitism in eastern bluebirds. Ethology 112:833–838Google Scholar
  96. Sih A, Bell A, Johnson JC (2004) Behavioral syndromes: an ecological and evolutionary overview. Trends Ecol Evol 19:372–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Skutch AF (1976) Parent birds and their young. University of Texas Press, AustinGoogle Scholar
  98. Soler JJ, Møller AP (1996) A comparative analysis of the evolution of variation in appearance of eggs of European passerines in relation to brood parasitism. Behav Ecol 7:89–94Google Scholar
  99. Soler JJ, Moreno J, Avilés JM, Møller AP (2005) Blue and green egg-color intensity is associated with parental effort and mating system in passerines: support for the sexual selection hypothesis. Evolution 59:636–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Soler JJ, Aviles JM, Møller AP, Moreno J (2012) Attractive blue-green egg coloration and cuckoo-host coevolution. Biol J Linn Soc 106:154–168Google Scholar
  101. Solís JC, de Lope F (1995) Nest and egg crypsis in the ground-nesting stone curlew Burhinus oedicnemus. J Avian Biol 26:135–138Google Scholar
  102. Starck JM (1993) Evolution of avian ontogeny. In: Power DM (ed) Current ornithology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 275–366Google Scholar
  103. Stoddard MC, Stevens M (2010) Pattern mimicry of host eggs by the common cuckoo, as seen through a bird’s eye. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 277:1387–1393Google Scholar
  104. Stokke BG, Moksnes A, Roskaft E (2002) Obligate brood parasites as selective agents for evolution of egg appearance in passerine birds. Evolution 56:199–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Svensson EI, Råberg L (2010) Resistance and tolerance in animal enemy-victim coevolution. Trends Ecol Evol 25:267–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Swynnerton CFM (1916) On the coloration of the mouths and eggs of birds. II. On the coloration of eggs. Ibis 4:529–606Google Scholar
  107. Swynnerton CFM (1918) Rejections by birds of eggs unlike their own: with remarks on some of the cuckoo problems. Ibis:127–154Google Scholar
  108. Tinbergen N, Borekhuysen GJ, Feekes F, Houghton JCW, Krunk H (1962) Egg shell removal by the black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus: a behaviour component of camouflage. Behaviour 19:74–117Google Scholar
  109. Underwood TJ, Sealy SG (2002) Adaptive significance of egg coloration. In: Deeming DC (ed) Avian incubation: behaviour, environment, and evolution. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 280–298Google Scholar
  110. Verbeek NAM (1990) Differental predation on eggs in clutches of northwestern crows: the importance of egg color. Condor 92:695–701Google Scholar
  111. Victoria JK (1972) Clutch characteristics and egg discriminative ability of African village weaverbird Ploceus cucullatus. Ibis 114:367–376Google Scholar
  112. Wallace AR (1889) Darwinism: an exposition of the theory of natural selection with some of its applications. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  113. Weatherhead PJ, Blouin-Demers G (2004) Understanding avian nest predation: why ornithologists should study snakes. J Avian Biol 35:185–190Google Scholar
  114. Weidinger K (2001) Does egg colour affect predation rate on open passerine nests? Behav Ecol Sociobiol 49:456–464Google Scholar
  115. Wesołowski T, Maziarz M (2012) Dark tree cavities—a challenge for hole nesting birds? J Avian Biol 43:454–460Google Scholar
  116. West-Eberhard MJ (1989) Phenotypic plasticity and the origins of diversity. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 20:249–278Google Scholar
  117. Westmoreland D (2008) Evidence of selection for egg crypsis in conspicuous nests. J Field Ornithol 79:263–268Google Scholar
  118. Westmoreland D, Best LB (1986) Incubation continuity and the advantage of cryptic egg coloration to mourning doves. Wilson Bull 98:297–300Google Scholar
  119. Yahner RH, Mahan CG (1996) Effects of egg type on depredation of artificial ground nests. Wilson Bull 108:129–136Google Scholar
  120. Yang C, Liang W, Cai Y, Shi S, Takasu F, Møller AP, Antonov A, Fossøy F, Moksnes A, Røskaft E, Stokke BG (2010) Coevolution in action: disruptive selection on egg colour in an avian brood parasite and its host. PLoS ONE 5:e10816PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Hanley
    • 1
    • 2
  • Phillip Cassey
    • 3
  • Stéphanie M. Doucet
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of WindsorWindsorCanada
  2. 2.Department of Integrative BiologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  3. 3.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations