Advertisement

Euphytica

, 215:21 | Cite as

Association mapping of agro-morphological traits in European hazelnut (Corylus avellana)

  • Amy Frary
  • Suleyman Can Öztürk
  • Hüseyin Irfan Balık
  • Selda Kayalak Balık
  • Gökhan Kızılcı
  • Sami Doğanlar
  • Anne FraryEmail author
Article
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

More than half of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) production occurs in Turkey. Despite this dominance, the yield of Turkish cultivars has remained stagnant over the past 10 years with Italian yield nearly double that in Turkey. This difference is due to Turkey’s unique cultivation system; hazelnuts are grown in bushy clusters (“ocak” system), not as single trees. Current hazelnut breeding efforts are shifting toward the development of materials for single plant orchards which are much higher yielding; thus, there is a need to explore germplasm for relevant agro-morphological traits and to determine their genetic control. The objectives of this study were to examine data for 44 such traits in 390 hazelnut accessions: 16 cultivars, 232 landraces and 142 wild individuals from nine provinces in Turkey and to map the loci associated with these characteristics using simple sequence repeat markers. Comparison of cultivars, landraces and wild hazelnut accessions revealed the effects of domestication and selection on the crop and indicated that useful alleles for traits such as cropping and reduced alternate bearing may exist in the wild germplasm. A total of 145 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected with the largest proportions identified for involucre (26%) and inflorescence (14%) morphology. Several markers co-localized with more than one trait including markers for male catkin abundance which were shared with plant vigor and height. Similarly, markers for female flower abundance co-localized with suckering and alternate bearing. Such markers and their linked QTL should be studied in more detail as they might help breeders select for plant vigor, decreased suckering and increased flower production: traits which will be extremely useful for Turkey’s transition to single plant orchards.

Keywords

Filbert Microsatellites Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) Quantitative trait locus (QTL) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK, Project No. 212T201). We are grateful to Teberdar Çalişkan and Engin Çetiner for phenotypic characterization of the hazelnut material.

Authors’ contribution

AF analyzed results and drafted manuscript; SCÖ generated genotypic data and performed mapping; HIB, SKB and GK provided plant material and phenotypic data; SD and AF devised experiments; AF obtained funding and revised draft. All authors approved of submitted manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Data archiving

Data will be available at http://plantmolgen.iyte.edu.tr/data/ upon publication.

Supplementary material

10681_2019_2352_MOESM1_ESM.docx (109 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 108 kb)

References

  1. Balık Hİ, Kayalak Balık S, Beyhan N, Erdoğan V (2016) Fındık Çeşitleri (Hazelnut Cultivars). Klasmat Matbaacılık, TrabzonGoogle Scholar
  2. Beltramo C, Valentini N, Portis E, Torello D, Boccacci P, Angelica M, Botta R (2016) Genetic mapping and QTL analysis in European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). Mol Breed 36:27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beyhan N (2000) Fındığın döllenme biyolojisi. OMÜ Zir Fak Dergisi 15:116–122Google Scholar
  4. Boccacci P, Botta R, Rovira M (2008) Geentic diversity of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) germplasm in northeastern Spain. Hort Sci 43:667–672Google Scholar
  5. Boycheva S, Davlet L, Wolfender J-L, Fitzpatrick TB (2014) The rise of operon-like gene clusters in plants. Trends Plant Sci 19:447–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradbury PJ, Zhang Z, Kroon DE, Casstevens TM, Ramdoss Y, Buckler ES (2007) TASSEL: software for association mapping of complex traits in diverse samples. Bioinformatics 23:2633–2635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caliskan T, Cetiner E (1992) Bazi findik cesit ve tiplerinde karakterizasyon calismalari. T.C. Tarim ve Koyisleri Bakanligi, Tarimsal Arastirmalar Genel Mudurlugu, Findik Arastirma Ensitusu Mudurlugu Yayinlar no: 25Google Scholar
  8. Cristofori V, Muleo R, Bignami C, Rugini E (2014) Long term evaluation of hazelnut response to drip irrigation. Acta Hortic 1052:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Souza VAB, Byrne DH, Taylor JF (1998) Heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations, and predicted selection response of quantitative traits in peach I: an analysis of several reproductive traints. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 123:598–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elzebroek ATG, Wind K (2008) Guide to cultivated plants. CABI, Wallingford, pp 117–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Erdogan V, Mehlenbacher SA (2000) Interspecific hybridization in hazelnut (Corylus). J Am Soc Hortic Sci 125:489–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fideghelli C, De Salvador FR (2009) World hazelnut situation and perspectives. Acta Hortic 845:39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAOSTAT (2018). http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home. Accessed 10 May 2018
  14. Fulton TM, Chunwongse J, Tanksley SD (1990) Microprep protocol for extraction of DNA from tomato and other herbaceous plants. Plant Mol Biol Rep 13:207–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gokirmak T, Mehlenbacher SA, Bassil NV (2009) Characterization of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars using SSR markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol 56:147–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. GTHB (Gida Tarım ve Hayvancılık Bakanlığı) (2018) Bitkisel üretim verileri. https://www.tarim.gov.tr/sgb/Belgeler/SagMenuVeriler/BUGEM.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2018
  17. Gurcan K, Mehlenbacher SA, Botta R, Boccacci P (2010) Development, characterization, segregation and mapping of microsatellite markers for European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) from enriched genomic libraries and usefulness in genetic diversity studies. Tree Genet Genomes 6:513–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Holst D (2010) Hazelnut economy of early Holocene hunter-gatherers: a case study from Mesolithic Duvensee, Northern Germany. J Archaeol Sci 37:2871–2880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Martins S, Simões F, Mendonça D, Matos J, Silva AP, Carnide V (2013) Chloroplast SSR genetic diversity indicates a refuge for Corylus avellana in northern Portugal. Gen Resour Crop Evol 60:1289–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mehlenbacher SA, Brown RN, Nouhra ER, Gökirmak T, Bassel NV, Kubisiak TL (2006) A genetic linkage map for hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) based on RAPD and SSR markers. Genome 49:122–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mingeau M, Ameglio T, Pons B, Rousseau P (1994) Effects of water stress on development, growth and yield of hazelnut trees. Acta Hortic 351:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Molnar TJ (2011) Corylus. In: Kole C (ed) Wild crop relatives: genomic and breeding resources— forest trees. Springer, Berlin, pp 15–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Norusis MJ (2010) PASW Statistics 18 advanced statistical procedures companion. Prentice Hall Press, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  24. Nyssen B, Schmidt UE, Muys B, van der Lei PB, Pyttel P (2016) The history of introduced tree species in Europe in a nutshell. In: Krumm F, Vítková L (eds) Introduced tree species in European forests: opportunities and challenges. European Forest Institute, Joensuu, pp 44–54Google Scholar
  25. Oregon Hazelnuts (2018) Production. http://oregonhazelnuts.org/about/production/. Accessed 1 Aug 2018
  26. Ozturk SC, Ozturk SE, Celik I, Stampar F, Veberic R, Doganlar S, Solar A, Frary A (2017a) Molecular genetic diversity and association mapping of nut and kernel traits in Slovenian hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) germplasm. Tree Genet Genomes 13:16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ozturk SC, Balik HI, Balik SK, Kizilci G, Duyar O, Doganlar S, Frary A (2017b) Molecular genetic diversity of the Turkish national hazelnut collection and selection of a core set. Tree Genet Genomes 13:113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pop F, Pamfil D, Raica PA, Petricele IV, Botu M, Vicol AC, Harta M, Sisea CR (2010) Evaluation of the genetic diversity of several Corylus avellana accessions from the Romanian National Hazelnut Collection. Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj 38:61–67Google Scholar
  29. Storey JD (2002) A direct approach to false discovery rates. J R Stat Soc Ser B 64:479–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Storey JD, Tibshirani R (2003) Statistical significance for genome-wide experiments. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:9440–9445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thompson MM (1979) Genetics of incompatibility in Corylus avellana L. Theor Appl Genet 54:113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Thompson MM, Lagerstedt HB, Mehlenbacher SA (1996) Hazelnuts. In: Janick J, Moore JN (eds) Fruit breeding. Nuts, vol 3. Wiley, New York, pp 125–184Google Scholar
  33. Torello Marinoni D, Valentini N, Portis E, Acquadro A, Beltramo C, Mehlenbacher SA, Mockler TC, Rowley ER, Botta R (2018) High density SNP mapping and QTL analysis for time of leaf budburst in Corylus avellana L. PLoS ONE 13(4):e0195408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. UPOV (International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants) (1979) Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. and Corylus maxima Mill.): guidelines for the conduct of tests for distinctness, uniformity and stability. Hazelnut/Noisetier/Haselnuss, 79-03-28. Doc. No. TG/71/3. UPOV, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  35. Xiao D, Wang H, Basnet RK, Zhao J, Lin K, Hou X, Bonnema G (2014) Geentic dissection of leaf development in Brassica rapa using a genetical genomics approach. Plant Physiol 164:1309–1325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zagwijn W (1994) Reconstruction of climate change during the Holocene in western and central Europse based on pollen records of indicator species. Veg Hist Archaeobot 3:65–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesMount Holyoke CollegeSouth HadleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Biology and GeneticsIzmir Institute of TechnologyUrlaTurkey
  3. 3.Hazelnut Research InstituteGiresunTurkey
  4. 4.General Directorate of Agricultural Research and PoliciesAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations