Genetic analysis of edamame seed composition and trait relationships in soybean lines
- 176 Downloads
Edamame, a vegetable or specialty soybean (Glycine max) with high nutritional and market value, is relatively new to North America. Because of its health and nutritional benefits and globalized trade, the edamame market and acreage in the United States are steadily increasing. To facilitate edamame breeding and commercial production, we genetically analyzed edamame seed composition using 86 breeding lines and cultivars developed in the U.S. Significant genotypic differences based on a single year or 2-year joint analysis were observed for most traits investigated, including protein, oil, dietary fiber, starch, sucrose, stachyose and total sugar content. No significant genotypic difference was observed for ash content in both years and for raffinose content in year 2016. Yearly differences were also significant except for sucrose, stachyose and total sugar. Genotype-by-year interaction was significant for protein, sucrose, raffinose and total sugar, but insignificant for other traits. The heritability was high and relatively stable for protein and oil content, followed by stachyose content, but was low for ash and starch content. The heritability for sucrose, total sugar and dietary fiber content varied from 38 to 75%. Genotypic correlations were insignificant among most traits. However, protein content was negatively correlated with oil content and dietary fiber, but positively associated with stachyose. Oil content was negatively correlated with starch and individual sugars. Although positive phenotypic or Pearson’s correlation existed between total sugar content and individual sugars, and between sucrose and starch content, their genotypic correlations were insignificant.
KeywordsEdamame Vegetable soybean Seed composition Heritability Genetic correlation
This study was supported in part by USDA-NIFA Evans-Allen Research Program and USDA-NIFA Capacity Building Grant (CBG) Program (funding awarded to G-L Jiang). We are grateful to the Virginia State University students Rameka Tylor and Zhane Slade for their assistance on the projects. We would also thank Dr. James B. Holland, USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit and Department of Crop and Soil Sciences at North Carolina State University, for his advice on the SAS program in analysis of genotypic correlation. This article is a contribution of the Virginia State University, Agricultural Research Station (Journal Series No. 351).
- Bernick K (2009) Edamame takes root in U.S. Corn & soybean digest. http://cornandsoybeandigest.com/edamame-takes-root-us. Accessed 26 Feb 2018
- Binder K (2010) Edible soybean rises in popularity with U.S. consumers & producers. Farm world. http://www.farmworldonline.com/news/NewsArticle.asp?newsid=10620. Accessed 16 Apr 2018
- Carson LC, Freeman JH, Zhou K, Welbaum G, Reiter M (2011) Cultivar evaluation and lipid and protein contents of Virginia-grown edamame. HortTechnology 21(1):131–135Google Scholar
- Fehr WR (1987) Principles of cultivar development. Theory and technique, vol 1. MacMillian Publishing Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Li Y-S, Du M, Zhang Q-Y, Wang G-H, Hashemi M, Liu X-B (2012) Greater differences exist in seed protein, oil, total soluble sugar and sucrose content of vegetable soybean genotypes [‘Glycine max’ (L.) Merrill] in Northeast China. Aust J Crop Sci 6:1681–1686Google Scholar
- Liu KS (1999) Soybeans: chemistry, technology, and utilization. Aspen Publishers Inc., GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
- McBryde J (2012) Snacking on soy: Arkansas grows edamame commercially. Farm flavor. http://farmflavor.com/us-ag/arkansas/top-crops-arkansas/snacking-on-soy-arkansas-grows-edamame-commercially/. Accessed 26 Feb 2015
- Pathan SM, Vuong T, Clark K, Lee J-D, Shannon JG, Roberts CA, Ellersieck MR, Burton JW, Cregan PB, Hyten DL, Nguyen HT, Sleper DA (2013) Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean. Crop Sci 53:765–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sharma JR (1988) Statistical and biometrical techniques in plant breeding. New Age International (P) Limited Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Zhang L, Kyei-Boahen S (2007) Growth and yield of vegetable soybean (Edamame) in Mississippi. HortTechnology 17:26–31Google Scholar
- Zhang J, Wang X, Lu Y, Bhusal S, Song Q, Cregan PB, Yen Y, Brown M, Jiang G-L (2018) Genome-wide scan for seed composition provides insights into soybean quality improvement and the impacts of domestication and breeding. Mol Plant 11:460–472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2017.12.016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar