Effects of Solanum demissum chromosomes on crossability in the backcross progeny to Solanum tuberosum
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A balance of maternal and paternal genetic factors, conceptually named the endosperm balance number (EBN), is required for normal endosperm development in interspecific crosses in potato. We previously found that Solanum demissum (D), a hexaploid wild species widely used in potato breeding, has a slightly lower EBN than S. tuberosum (T). To explore the genetic nature of the EBN, the berry-setting rate, seed number/berry, and seed weight were evaluated in BC1 [(D × T) × T] plants, each possessing different portions of the S. demissum chromosomes, by reciprocal crosses with D and T, and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed. At least 99 S. demissum-derived QTLs were detected, of which 29 were associated with differential responses to D and T. Three QTLs were possibly co-localized on chromosomes 7A and 10D1, while the remaining 23 QTLs were independently located. The QTLs in the three S. demissum homoeologous chromosomes exhibited three types of interaction: (1) positive, (2) negative, and (3) one positive and one negative effect on the same trait. We found that several major genes, one of which was localized in the S. demissum chromosome 9A, and many minor genes controlled the crossability of BC1 plants. The QTLs responsible for the differential responses to D and T were different between the BC1 plants used as male and female parents, indicating that different genes control the male and female EBNs. Consequently, we conclude that the EBN is represented by the sum of various genetic effects controlled by a large number of genes.
KeywordsSolanum demissum Backcrossing Crossability Endosperm balance number (EBN) Genome duplication Potato
We would like to thank Shizuka Souma and Eri Kakuta for technical assistance. This research was supported by Calbee Inc., Hokkaido Potato Growers Association, Kewpie Corp., KENKO Mayonnaise Co., Ltd., and Japan Snack Cereal Foods Association.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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