Effects of Solanum demissum chromosomes on crossability in the backcross progeny to Solanum tuberosum
A balance of maternal and paternal genetic factors, conceptually named the endosperm balance number (EBN), is required for normal endosperm development in interspecific crosses in potato. We previously found that Solanum demissum (D), a hexaploid wild species widely used in potato breeding, has a slightly lower EBN than S. tuberosum (T). To explore the genetic nature of the EBN, the berry-setting rate, seed number/berry, and seed weight were evaluated in BC1 [(D × T) × T] plants, each possessing different portions of the S. demissum chromosomes, by reciprocal crosses with D and T, and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed. At least 99 S. demissum-derived QTLs were detected, of which 29 were associated with differential responses to D and T. Three QTLs were possibly co-localized on chromosomes 7A and 10D1, while the remaining 23 QTLs were independently located. The QTLs in the three S. demissum homoeologous chromosomes exhibited three types of interaction: (1) positive, (2) negative, and (3) one positive and one negative effect on the same trait. We found that several major genes, one of which was localized in the S. demissum chromosome 9A, and many minor genes controlled the crossability of BC1 plants. The QTLs responsible for the differential responses to D and T were different between the BC1 plants used as male and female parents, indicating that different genes control the male and female EBNs. Consequently, we conclude that the EBN is represented by the sum of various genetic effects controlled by a large number of genes.
KeywordsSolanum demissum Backcrossing Crossability Endosperm balance number (EBN) Genome duplication Potato
We would like to thank Shizuka Souma and Eri Kakuta for technical assistance. This research was supported by Calbee Inc., Hokkaido Potato Growers Association, Kewpie Corp., KENKO Mayonnaise Co., Ltd., and Japan Snack Cereal Foods Association.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bedinger PA, Chetelat RT, McClure B, Moyle LC, Rose JKC, Stack SM, van der Knaap E, Baek YS, Lopez-Casado G, Covey PA, Kumar A, Li W, Nunez R, Cruz-Garcia F, Royer S (2011) Interspecific reproductive barriers in the tomato clade: opportunities to decipher mechanisms of reproductive isolation. Sex Plant Reprod 24:171–187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dobzhansky T, Ayala FJ, Stebbins GL, Valentine JW (1977) Evolution. W. H. Freeman and Company, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
- Ehlenfeldt MK, Hanneman RE Jr (1988) Genetic control of Endosperm Balance Number (EBN): three additive loci in a threshold-like system. Theor Appl Genet 75:825–832Google Scholar
- Grun P (1979) Evolution of the cultivated potato: a cytoplasmic analysis. In: Hawkes JG, Lester RN, Skelding AD (eds) The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Academic Press, London, pp 655–665Google Scholar
- Hawkes JG (1990) The potato: evolution, biodiversity and genetic resources. Belhaven Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Hawkes JG, Hjerting JP (1969) The potatoes of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Hermsen JGTh, Sawicka E (1979) Incompatibility and incongruity in tuber-bearing Solanum species. In: Hawkes JG, Lester RN, Skelding AD (eds) The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Academic Press, London, pp 445–453Google Scholar
- Irikura Y (1968) Studies on interspecific crosses of tuber-bearing Solanums. 1. Overcoming cross-incompatibility between Solamum tuberosum and other Solanum species by mean of induced polyploids and haploids. Hokkaido Noshi Shuho 92:21–37Google Scholar
- Matsubayashi M (1991) Phylogenetic relationships in the potato and its related species. In: Tsuchiya T, Gupta PK (eds) Chromosome engineering in plants: genetics, breeding, evolution, part B. Elsevier, New York, pp 93–118Google Scholar
- Mori K, Mukojima N, Nakao T, Tamiya S, Sakamoto Y, Sohbaru N, Hayashi K, Watanuki H, Nara K, Yamazaki K, Ishii T, Hosaka K (2012) Germplasm release: Saikai 35, a male and female fertile breeding line carrying Solanum phureja-derived cytoplasm and potato cyst nematode resistance (H1) and Potato virus Y resistance (Ry chc) genes. Am J Potato Res 89:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ono S (2008) A cytogenetic study on the backcross populations from a wild hexaploid species Solanum demissum Lindl. and a common potato. BS thesis, Kobe UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Ortiz R, Ehlenfeldt MK (1992) The importance of Endosperm Balance Number in potato breeding and the evolution of tuber-bearing Solanum species. Euphytica 60:105–113Google Scholar
- Pushkarnath (1942) Studies on sterility in potatoes. 1. The genetics of self- and cross-incompatibilities. Indian J Genet Pl Breed 2:11–36Google Scholar
- Ross H (1986) Potato breeding—problems and perspectives. Verlag Paul Parey, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Van Ooijen JW (2009) MapQTL® 6, software for the mapping of quantitative trait loci in experimental populations of diploid species. Kyazma B. V., WageningenGoogle Scholar