, 214:49 | Cite as

Rf4 has minor effects on the fertility restoration of wild abortive-type cytoplasmic male sterile japonica (Oryza sativa) lines

  • Honggen Zhang
  • Xiaojun Cheng
  • Lijia Zhang
  • Hua Si
  • Yongshen Ge
  • Minghong Gu
  • Shuzhu TangEmail author


Wild abortive (WA)-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been exclusively used for breeding three-line hybrid indica rice, but it has not been applied for generating japonica hybrids because of the difficulties related to breeding japonica restorer lines. Determining whether the major restorer-of-fertility (Rf) gene used for indica hybrids can efficiently restore the fertility of WA-type japonica CMS lines may be useful for breeding WA-type japonica restorer lines. In this study, japonica restorer lines for Chinsurah Boro II (BT)-type CMS exhibited varying abilities to restore the fertility of ‘WA-LiuqianxinA’, which is a WA-type japonica CMS line. Additionally, Rf genes for WA-type CMS were identified in the BT-type japonica restorers. Meanwhile, ‘C9083’, which is a BT-type japonica restorer, exhibited a limited ability to restore the fertility of WA-type japonica CMS lines, and a genetic analysis revealed that the fertility restoration was controlled by one locus. The Rf gene was mapped to an approximately 370-kb physical region and was identified as Rf4. Furthermore, Rf gene dosage effects and the temperature influenced the fertility restoration of WA-type japonica CMS lines. This study is the first to confirm that Rf4 has only minor effects on the fertility restoration of WA-type japonica CMS lines. These results may be relevant for the development of WA-type japonica hybrids.


Japonica WA-type CMS Restorer-of-fertility (Rf) gene Restoration ability Gene mapping 



This study was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFD0101107), the National Basic Research Program of China (2013CBA01405), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions. We thank Lesley Benyon, PhD, from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China (, for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript.

Author contributions

HZ analyzed the data and drafted the manuscript. XC and LZ evaluated the phenotypes and analyzed the data. HS and YG helped construct the BC population. MG helped design the study. ST designed the study and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10681_2018_2128_MOESM1_ESM.docx (250 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 249 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education, College of AgricultureYangzhou UniversityYangzhouChina

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