Genetic diversity of spring wheat from Kazakhstan and Russia for resistance to stem rust Ug99
- 369 Downloads
The spring wheat belt of Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan covers more than 15 million ha. While moisture stress is the main factor limiting production, rusts also represent a major challenge, especially in years with higher rainfall. Stem rust was not considered economically important until 2015 when a local epidemic occurred in the Omsk region of Russia and neighboring areas of Kazakhstan and affected more than 1 million ha. It occurred again in 2016 though the spread, severity and losses were less. This study used 16 pathotypes and 17 molecular markers to characterize a set of 146 spring wheat varieties and breeding lines identified as stem rust resistant in Kenya and the Kazakhstan–Siberia region for the presence of major genes. The genetic basis of resistance in the material was limited to Sr25, Sr31, Sr36, Sr6Ai, Sr6Ai#2, and some unknown major genes. Genes Sr25 and Sr6Ai#2 also provided high levels of resistance to leaf rust through linkages with Lr19 and Lr6Ai#2. Adult plant resistance to stem rust was observed in 26 genotypes (16.5 %), including eight possessing Sr57 gene. The high risk of stem rust—as indicated by the 2015 Siberian epidemic—means that there is an urgent need to diversify the genetic bases of resistance and to promote resistant varieties with farmers.
KeywordsWheat Disease resistance Genes Stem rust
The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) is financially supported by CRP WHEAT. The Kazakhstan–Siberia Network for Spring Wheat Improvement (KASIB) is supported by the Government of Kazakhstan through the Ministry of Agriculture, and by the Government of the Russian Federation through the Eurasian Center of Food Security. Support from the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI) was essential for testing germplasm in Kenya. Molecular marker analysis was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Agreement No. 14.604.21.0106 from 07.07.2014; identification number RFMEFI 60414X0106). Research at Omsk State Agrarian University was supported by Russian Science Foundation (Project No. 16-16-1005 signed 10.05.2016). Dr. Yue Jin from the United States Department of Agriculture Cereal Disease Laboratory (USDA-CDL) is acknowledged for his cooperation in this study and substantial contribution to the manuscript through discussion and editing. Dr. Tamara Kolomiets from the All-Russian Institute of Phytopathology (Moscow Region), Ms. Aygul Akhmetova from CIMMYT-Kazakhstan, and Dr. Igor Belan from the Siberian Agricultural Research Institute (Omsk) are acknowledged for evaluating the germplasm for diseases. Dr. Sergey Martynov from the Vavilov Institute assisted with statistical analysis and Dr. Matthew Rouse from the USDA Cereal Disease Laboratory provided useful information concerning gene postulations. The scientific editorial contribution of Ms. Emma Quilligan is highly appreciated.
- Bajgain P, Rouse MN, Bulli P, Bhavani S, Gordon T, Wanyera R, Njau PN, Legesse W, Anderson JA, Pamphrey MO (2015) Association mapping of North American spring wheat breeding germplasm reveals loci conferring resistance to Ug99 and other African stem rust races. BMC Plant Biol 15:249CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- DePauw RM, Fetch T, Hiebert CW, Humphreya DG, Knox R, Pozniak CJ, Thomas JB, Singh AK, Graf R, Randhawa HS, Fox SL, Brown PD, Clarke FR, McIntosh R (2009) Sources of resistance to stem rust race Ug99 and its variants in Canadian wheat germplasm. Borlaug Global Rust Initiative, Ithaca. In: Proceedings, oral papers and posters, 2009 technical workshop, BGRI, Cd. Obregon, 17–20 Mar, 2009, pp 171–178Google Scholar
- Haile JK, Roder MS (2013) Status of genetic research for resistance to Ug99 race of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici: a review of current research and implications. African J Agric Res 8:6670–6680Google Scholar
- Laido G, Panio G, Marone D, Russo MA, Ficco DBM, Ciovanelli V, Cattivelli L, Steffenson B, Vita P, de. Mastrangelo AM (2015) Identification of new resistance loci to African stem rust race TTKSK in tetraploid wheat based on linkage and genome-wide association mapping. Front Plant Sci. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.01033 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Morgounov A, Zykin V, Sereda G, Urazaliev R (2001) Siberian and north Kazakhstan wheat pool. In: Bonjean A, Angus W (eds) The world wheat book: a history of wheat breeding. Lavoisier, Paris, pp 755–772Google Scholar
- Newcomb M, Olivera PD, Rouse MN, Szabo LJ, Johnson J, Gale S, Luster DG, Wanyera R, Macharia G, Bhavani S, Hodson D, Patpour M, Hovmøller MS, Fetch TG, Jin Y (2016) Kenyan isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici from 2008 to 2014: virulence to SrTmp in the Ug99 race group and implications for breeding programs. Phytopathology 106:729–736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Olivera P, Newcomb M, Szabo LJ, Rouse MN, Johnson J, Gale S, Luster DG, Hodson D, Cox JA, Burgin L, HortM Gilligan CA, Patpour M, Justesen AF, Hovmøller MS, Woldeab G, Hailu E, Hundie B, Tadesse K, Pumphrey M, Singh RP, Jin Y (2015) Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of race TKTTF of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici that caused a wheat stem rust epidemic in southern Ethiopia in 2013-14. Phytopathology 105:917–928CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Purnhauser L, Bona L (2009) Detection of Sr31 and Sr36 stem rust resistant genes by molecular markers in wheat cultivars registered in Hungary. Res J Agric Sci 41:318–322Google Scholar
- Shamanin VP, Morgounov AI, Petukhovskiy SL, Likhenko IE, Levshunov MA, Salina EA, Potostkaya IV, Trushenko AYu (2015) Spring bread wheat breeding for resistance to stem rust in western Siberia. Osmk State Aric. University, Omsk 152 p Google Scholar