, Volume 208, Issue 1, pp 173–186 | Cite as

Variance and stability analyses of growth characters in half-sib Betula platyphylla families at three different sites in China

  • Xiyang Zhao
  • Hui Xia
  • Xiuwei Wang
  • Chao Wang
  • Deyang Liang
  • Kailong LiEmail author
  • Guifeng LiuEmail author


Growth characteristics have a complex inheritance pattern, and gene–environment interactions make predicting tree responses to environmental change difficult. In this study, we planted 44 Betula platyphylla families at three different sites (Mao er shan forestry center in Shangzhi, Jilin experiment forestry center in Jilin, Lang xiang forestry center in Langxiang) in northeastern China. Variation and stability of genotype–environment interactions of different families were analyzed using additive main effect and multiplicative interaction models. Variation analysis indicated significant differences between site × family interaction mean values for height, diameter at breast height, volume, and stem straight degree, suggesting that most genotypes responded differently according to location. The phenotypic coefficients of variation of different traits ranged from 12.84 % (stem straight degree in Langxiang) to 53.34 % (volume in Langxiang) and heritabilities of the different traits varied from 0.485 (diameter at breast height in Mao er shan) to 0.781 (height in Jilin). Correlation analysis showed a significantly positive association between tree height, diameter at breast height, and volume at the same and different sites, but stem straight degree showing a weaker correlation with other traits. Stability analysis indicated that some families had high tree heights but were sensitive to environmental conditions, whereas others had average tree heights but were resistant to environmental conditions. These results suggest that families should be bred in various habitats to assess growth under favorable and unfavorable environments. Under a selection ratio of 10 %, four families (family 1–7, 4–7, 3–12 and 4–13) were rated as superior families. The average height, diameter at breast height, volume, and stem straight degree of these four families were higher than average of all the families by 12.24, 16.82, 32.28 and 6.28 % in the four test sites, respectively.


Betula platyphylla Variation Heritability AMMI 



This work was supported by the grants of the National Science and Technology Pillar Program of China (No. 2012BAD21B02).


  1. Annicchiarico P (2002) Genotype × environment interactions: challenges and opportunities for plant breeding and cultivar recommendations. Washington (DC): Food and Agriculture Org. p 101Google Scholar
  2. Balestre M, Pinho R, Soouza J, Oliverira R (2009) Genotypic stability and adaptability in tropical maize based on AMMI and GGE biplot analysis. Genet Mol Res 8:1311–1322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bi CX, Guo JZ, Wang HW, Shu QY (2000) The correlation and path analysis on the quantity characters of Chinese pine. J Northwest For Univ 15(2):7–12Google Scholar
  4. Burdon R (1977) Genetic correlation as concept for studying genotype-environment interactions in forest breeding. Silvae Genet 26:168–175Google Scholar
  5. Codesido V, Lopez F (2009) Implication of genotype × site interaction on Pinus radiata breeding in Galicia. New Forest 37:17–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dhillon G, Singh A, Sidhu DS, Brar HS (2012) Variation among poplar clones for growth and crown traits under field conditions at two sites of north-western India. J For Res 24:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fang SZ, Xu XZ, Lu SX, Tang LZ (1999) Growth dynamics and biomass production in short-rotation poplar plantations: 6-year results for three clones at four spacings. Biomass Bioenergy 17:415–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Frew M (2003) Yield stability in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes. Euphytica 130:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hai PH, Jansson G, Harwood C, Hannrup B, Thinh HH (2008) Genetic variation in growth, stem straightness and branch thickness in clonal trials of Acacia auriculiformis at three contrasting sites in Vietnam. For Ecol Manag 255:156–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hansen J, Roulund H (1997) Genetic parameters for spiral grain, stem form, pilodyn and growth in 13 years old clones of Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.). Silvae Genet 46:107–113Google Scholar
  11. Jiang J, Yang G, Zhu ZB, Yang YL, Yang SZ (2011) Family selection from intensive seed orchard of Betula Platyphylla. J Northeast For Univ 39:1–4Google Scholar
  12. Kang M, Pham H (1991) Simultaneous selection for high yielding and stable crop genotypes. Agron J 83:161–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kempton R (1984) The use of the biplots in interpreting variety by environment interactions. J Agric Sci 103:123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kien ND, Jansson G, Harwood C, Almqvist C, Thinh HH (2008) Genetic variation in wood basic density and pilodyn penetration and their relationships with growth, stem straightness and branch size for Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake in Northern Vietnam. NZ J For Sci 38:160–175Google Scholar
  15. Li P, Fang G, Sun C (1995) Wood characteristics of pulpwood. Chem Indus For Prod 15:13–18Google Scholar
  16. Liu DK, Liu MR, Li ZX, Wang GY, Li Y, Zheng M, Liu GF, Zhao XY (2015a) Variation analysis of growth traits of transgenic Populous simonii × P.nigra clones carrying TaLEA Gene. Bull Bot Res 35:540–546Google Scholar
  17. Liu MR, Yin SP, Si DJ, Shao LT, Li Y, Zheng M, Wang FW, Li SC, Liu GF, Zhao XY (2015b) Variation and genetic stability analyses of transgenic TaLEA poplar clones from four different sites in China. Euphytica. doi: 10.1007/s10681-015-1471-7 Google Scholar
  18. Lynch M, Walsh B (1998) Genetics and analysis of quantitative traits. Mass. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  19. Maniee MD, Kahrizi MD, Mohammadi R (2009) Genetic variability of some morphophysiological traits in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum). J Appl Sci 9:1383–1387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marron N, Ceulemans R (2006) Genetic variation of leaf traits related to productivity in a Populus deltoides × Populus nigra family. Can J For Res 36:390–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marron N, Ricciotti L, Bastien C, Beritognolo L, Gaudet M, Paolucci I, Fabbrini F, Salani F, Dillen SY, Ceulemans R, Pinel M, Taylor G, Mugnozza GS, Sabatti M (2010) Plasticity of growth and biomass production of an intraspecific Populus alba family grown at three sites across Europe during three growing seasons. Can J For Res 40:1887–1903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Misra RC, Das S, Patnaik MC (2009) AMMI model analysis of stability and adaptability of late duration finger millet (Eleusine coracana) genotypes. World Appl Sci J 6:1650–1654Google Scholar
  23. Montes CS, Hernandez RE, Beaulieu J, Weber JC (2008) Genetic variation in wood color and its correlations with tree growth and wood density of Calycophyllum spruceanum at an early age in the Peruvian Amazon. New Forest 35:57–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Namkoong G, Kang HC, Brouard JS (1988) Tree breeding: principles and strategies. Springer, New York, p 180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nicolas M, Sophie Y, Reinhart C (2007) Evaluation of leaf traits for indirect selection of high yielding poplar hybrids. Environ Exp Bot 61:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pliura A, Zhang YS, Mackay J, Bousquet J (2007) Genotypic variation in wood density and growth traits of poplar hybrids at four clonal trials. For Ecol Manag 238:92–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Safavi SA, Pourdad SA, Mohmmad T, Mahmoud K (2010) Assessment of genetic variation among safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) accessions using agro-morphological traits nand molecular markers. J Food Agric Environ 8:616–625Google Scholar
  28. Sumida A, Miyaura T, Hitoshi T (2013) Relationships of tree height and diameter at breast height revisited: analyses of stem growth using 20-year data of an even-aged Chamaecyparis obtuse stand. Tree Physiol 33:106–118PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Yang CP, Liu GF, Wei ZG, Wu YL, Zhou YM (2004) Study on intensive breeding technique of accelerating Betula platyphylla flowering and seeding early. Sci Silvae Sin 40:14–17Google Scholar
  30. Yu QB, Pulkkien P (2003) Genotype-environment interaction and stability in growth of aspen hybrid clones. For Ecol Manag 173:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zeng J, Zou YP, Bai JY, Zheng HS (2003) RAPD analysis of genetic variation in natural populations of Betula alnoides from Guangxi, China. Euphytica 134:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhao XY, Li Y, Zhao L, Wu RL, Zhang ZY (2013) Analysis and evaluation of growth and adaptive performance of white poplar hybrid clones in different sites. J Beijing For Univ 35:7–14Google Scholar
  33. Zhao XY, Bian XY, Li ZX, Wang XW, Yang CP, Liu GF, Jiang J, Kentbayev Y, Kentbayeva B, Yang CP (2014a) Genetic stability analysis of introduced Betula pendula, Bentula kirghisorum, and Betula pubescens families in saline-alkali soil of northeastern china. Scand J For Res 29:619–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhao XY, Bian XY, Liu MR, Li ZX, Li Y, Zheng M, Teng WH, Jiang J, Liu GF (2014b) Analysis of genetic effects on complete diallel cross test of Betula platyphylla. Euphytica 200:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhao XY, Hou W, Zheng HQ, Zhang ZY (2014c) Analyses of genotypic variation in white poplar clones at four sites in China. Silvae Genet 62:187–195Google Scholar
  36. Zobel RW, Madison JW, Gauch HG (1988) Statistical analysis of a yield trial. Agron J 80:388–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, School of ForestryNortheast Forestry UniversityHarbinPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations