, Volume 208, Issue 2, pp 299–312 | Cite as

Mapping quantitative trait loci for plant adaptation and morphology traits in wheat using single nucleotide polymorphisms

  • C. Li
  • G. BaiEmail author
  • B. F. Carver
  • S. Chao
  • Z. Wang


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) morphological and adaptation-related traits that are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) help define potential growing areas of a wheat cultivar. To dissect QTLs for heading date, lodging, shattering (SH), cold tolerance, plant height, spike length, spike compactness, awn length (AL) and chaff color (CC), a high-density genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers were developed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from ‘Ning7840’ × ‘Clark’. The RILs were evaluated in eight Oklahoma environments from 2001 to 2004. A total of 31 QTLs with additive effects on different traits were mapped on most wheat chromosomes except for 1D, 3A, 3D, 4D, 6D, and 7B. Six chromosome regions showed either tightly linked QTLs or QTLs with pleiotropic effects for two to three traits. Five QTL pairs showed additive × additive effects (AA). Ten additive QTLs were involved in additive × environment (AE) effects, and one epistatic QTL was involved in AAE effects. Among nine traits evaluated only three (SH, AL, and CC) were controlled by single genes in this biparental population. Seven traits were conditioned by multiple QTLs. A total of 127 markers were tightly linked to the QTLs. The findings shed light on the inheritance of wheat morphological and adaptation-related traits and provide DNA markers for manipulating these important traits to improve wheat production.


Triticum aestivum Adaptation and morphology traits SNP Epistasis QTL × environments interaction 



This is contribution number 15-390-J from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. This project is partly funded by the National Research Initiative Competitive Grants CAP project 2011-68002-30029 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture; the Science and Technology Innovation Team Plan (2014KCT-25) from Shaanxi province, China. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Li
    • 1
    • 3
  • G. Bai
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • B. F. Carver
    • 4
  • S. Chao
    • 5
  • Z. Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of AgronomyNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina
  2. 2.USDA-ARSHard Winter Wheat Genetics Research UnitManhattanUSA
  3. 3.Agronomy DepartmentKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  4. 4.Department of Plant and Soil SciencesOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  5. 5.USDA-ARSCereal Crops Research UnitFargoUSA

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