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Euphytica

, Volume 206, Issue 3, pp 725–736 | Cite as

QTL mapping for flowering time in different latitude in soybean

QTL mapping for flowering time
  • Sijia Lu
  • Ying Li
  • Jialin Wang
  • Peerasak Srinives
  • Haiyang Nan
  • Dong Cao
  • Yanping Wang
  • Jinliang Li
  • Xiaoming Li
  • Chao Fang
  • Xinyi Shi
  • Xiaohui Yuan
  • Satoshi Watanabe
  • Xianzhong Feng
  • Baohui Liu
  • Jun Abe
  • Fanjiang Kong
Article

Abstract

Flowering represents the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase and plays an important role in many agronomic traits. For soybean, a short day (SD) induced and photoperiod-sensitive plant, delaying flowering time under SD environments is very important and has been used by breeders to increase yields and enhance plant adaptabilities at lower latitudes. The purpose of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with flowering time, especially QTLs underlying the long juvenile (LJ) trait which delays flowering time under SD environments. A population of 91 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between AGS292 and K3 was used for map construction and QTL analysis. The map covered 2546.7 cM and included 52 new promoter-specific indel and 9 new exon-specific indel markers. The phenotypic days-to-flowering data were examined in nine environments, including four short-day (SD, low latitude) and five long-day photoperiod (LD, high latitude) environments. For the SD environments, six QTLs were detected. Five of them were associated with the LJ trait. Among the five LJ QTLs, four QTLs may be attributed to the known flowering time genes, including qFT-J-1 for FT5a locus, qFT-J-2 for the FT2a locus, qFT-O for the E2 locus and qFT-L for the E3 locus. This is the first report that the E2, E3, FT2a and FT5a loci may be associated with the LJ trait. Under the five LD environments, as expected, qFT-O for the E2 locus and qFT-L for the E3 locus were identified, suggesting that E2 and E3 loci are very important for soybean adaptation in LD photoperiod. Conjoint analysis of multiple environments identified nine additive QTLs and nine pairs of epistatic QTLs, among which most were involved in interactions with the environments. In total, five QTLs (qFT-B2-1, qFT-C1-1, qFT-K, qFT-D2 and qFT-F) were identified that may represent novel flowering time genes. This provides a fundamental foundation for future studies of flowering time in soybean using fine mapping, map-based cloning, and molecular-assisted breeding.

Keywords

Additive effect Epistatic effect Flowering time Long juvenile trait (LJ) Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31430065, 31071445, 31171579, 31201222, 31230050, 31371651 and 31371643); the Open Foundation of the Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Chinese Academy of Sciences; “Hundred Talents” Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Strategic Action Plan for Science and Technology Innovation of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA08030108); and Heilongjiang Natural Science Foundation of China (ZD201001, JC201313).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

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Fig. S1 The genetic linkage map of soybean (TIFF 3820 kb)
10681_2015_1501_MOESM2_ESM.doc (92 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 92 kb)
10681_2015_1501_MOESM3_ESM.doc (54 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOC 54 kb)
10681_2015_1501_MOESM4_ESM.doc (29 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOC 29 kb)
10681_2015_1501_MOESM5_ESM.doc (28 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (DOC 27 kb)
10681_2015_1501_MOESM6_ESM.doc (32 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (DOC 32 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sijia Lu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ying Li
    • 3
  • Jialin Wang
    • 1
  • Peerasak Srinives
    • 4
  • Haiyang Nan
    • 1
  • Dong Cao
    • 1
  • Yanping Wang
    • 5
  • Jinliang Li
    • 6
  • Xiaoming Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chao Fang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xinyi Shi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiaohui Yuan
    • 1
  • Satoshi Watanabe
    • 7
  • Xianzhong Feng
    • 1
  • Baohui Liu
    • 1
  • Jun Abe
    • 8
  • Fanjiang Kong
    • 1
  1. 1.The Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Northeast Institute of Geography and AgroecologyChinese Academy of SciencesHarbinChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and BreedingNortheast Forestry UniversityHarbinChina
  4. 4.Center for Agricultural BiotechnologyKasetsart UniversityNakhon PathomThailand
  5. 5.Mudanjiang Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural SciencesMudanjiangChina
  6. 6.Heihe Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural SciencesHeiheChina
  7. 7.Faculty of AgricultureSaga UniversitySagaJapan
  8. 8.Research Faculty of AgricultureHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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