, Volume 195, Issue 2, pp 157–167 | Cite as

Evaluation of variability in argan oil content through different environments and preselection of elite genotypes

  • Naïma Ait Aabd
  • Fouad Msanda
  • Abdelhamid El Mousadik


This investigation was carried out to determine the variability in oil content with the aim to identify genotypes of argan tree expressing high oil yield. The 150 argan trees were collected from five provenances in south west of Morocco over 3 years (2008–2010) and were screened from their oil content using Soxhlet method based on the 840 samples. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to study the genetic variation between and within provenances. According to the results on the mean of the 3 years, the oil content was ranged from 38.45 to 62.54 %. The genotypes from Aoulouz and Had Dra expressing high oil yield. Variance components for fruit, seed, kernel traits and oil content showed significant differences (P < 0.01) among years, provenances, genotypes and their interaction. Principal component analysis proved that fruit, seed, kernel, weight traits are correlated with oil content and are discriminate characters between the genotypes. The results of the cluster analysis support the results of the principal component analysis, showing no correlation between oil content with geographical localization parameters. For all the promising genotypes, at least 25 % were found to be better and exceed the oil mean of the provenance for 3 years. So, 31 promising elite genotypes were preselected, and open new ways for future comparative test of them in diverse environments.


Argania spinosa L. Provenance Oil yield Variability Preselection 


  1. Abdullah N, Rafii Yusop M, Ithnin M, Saleh G, Latif MA (2011) Genetic variability of oil palm parental genotypes and performance of its’ progenies as revealed by molecular markers and quantitative traits. CR Biol 334:290–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aghdaei SRT, Babaei A, Khui MK, Jaimand K, Rezaee MB, Assareh MH, Naghavi MR (2007) Morphological and oil content variations amongst Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) landraces from different regions of Iran. Sci Hortic 113:44–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ait Aabd N, Msanda F, El mousadik A (2012) Univariate and multivariate analysis of agronomical traits of preselected argan trees. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 40(2):308–316Google Scholar
  4. Ait Aabd N, El Ayadi F, Msanda F, El mousadik A (2011) Evaluation of agromorphological variability of argan tree under different environmental conditions in Morocco: Implication for selection. Int J Biodivers Conserv 3(3):73–82Google Scholar
  5. AOAC (1990) Official methods of the association of official analytical Chemists. AOAC, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Bani Aameur F, Ferradous A (2001) Fruits and stone variability in three argan (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) populations. For Genet 8(1):39–45Google Scholar
  7. Belaj A, Leóna L, Satovicb Z, Rosaa R (2011) Variability of wild olives (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) analyzed by agro-morphological traits and SSR markers. Sci Hortic 129:561–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Charrouf Z, Guillaume D (1999) Ethnoeconomical ethnomedical and phytochemical study of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels. J Ethnopharmacol 67:7–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Charrouf Z, Guillaume D (2010) Should the amazigh diet (regular and moderate argan-oil consumption) have a beneficial impact on human health? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50:473–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cherki M, Derouiche A, Drissi A, El Messal M, Bamou Y, Idrissi-Ouadghiri A, Khalil A, Adlouni A (2005) Consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving paraoxonase activities and antioxidant status: intervention study in healthy men. Nutr, Metab Cardiovasc Dis 15:352–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chigeza G, Mashingaidzec K, Shanahanb P (2012) Seed yield and associated trait improvements in sunflower cultivars over four decades of breeding in South Africa. Field Crops Res 130:46–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cruz CD, Regazzi AJ, Carneiro PC (2004) Biometric templates applied to genetic improvement. UFV, Viosa, p 480Google Scholar
  13. Drissi A, Bennani H, Giton F, Charrouf Z, Fiet J, Adlouni A (2006) Tocopherols and saponins derived from Argania spinosa exert an antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer. Cancer Invest 24:588–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. El Babili F, Bouajila J, Fouraste I, Valentin A, Mauret S, Moulis C (2010) Chemical study, antimalarial and antioxidant activities, and cytotoxicity to human breast cancer cells (MCF7) of Argania spinosa. Phytomedicine 17:157–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. El Mousadik A, Petit RJ (1996) High level of genetic differentiation for allelic richness among population of argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) endemic to Morocco. Theor Appl Genet 92:832–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gharby S, Harhar H, Guillaume D, Haddad A, Matthäus B, Charrouf Z (2011) Oxidative stability of edible argan oil: a two-year study. LWT Food Sci Technol 44:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ginwal HS, Phartyal SS, Rawat PS, Srivastava RL (2005) Seed source variation in morphology, germination and seedling growth of Jatropha curcas Linn. in Central India. Silvae Genet 54:76–80Google Scholar
  18. Iqbal M, Akhtar N, Zafar S, Ali I (2008) Genotypic responses for yield and seed oil quality of two Brassica species under semi-arid environmental conditions. South Afr J Bot 74:567–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaushik N, Kaushik JC, Kumar S (2003) Response of Jatropha curcas to seed size and growing medium. J Non Timber For Prod 10:40–52Google Scholar
  20. Khallouki F, Younos C, Soulimani R, Oster T, Charrouf Z, Spiegelhalder B (2003) Consumption of argan oil (Morocco) with its unique profile of fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic compounds should confer valuable cancer chemopreventive effects. Eur J Cancer Prev 12:67–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klepo T, Rosaa RD, Satovicb Z, Leóna L, Belaja A (2013) Utility of wild germplasm in olive breeding. Sci Hortic 152:92–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lal RK (2012) Stability for oil yield and variety recommendations’ using AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interactions) model in Lemongrass (Cymbopogon species). Ind Crops Prod 40:296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lal RK (2013) On genetic diversity in germplasm of vetiver ‘Veteveria zizanioides (L.) Nash’. Ind Crops Prod 43:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lefhaili A (2010) FAO forest resources assessment: Morocco country report. FAOGoogle Scholar
  25. Mhirit O, Benzyane M, Benchekroun F, El Yousfi SM, Bendaanoun M (1998) L’arganier, une espèce fruitière-forestière à usages multiples. Mardaga, SprimontGoogle Scholar
  26. Morales AC, Paragas AA, Carangal VR (1991) Phenotypic stability for grain yield in mungbean (Vigna radiate (L), Wilczek). FLCG Newslett 16:12–15Google Scholar
  27. Msanda F, El Aboudi A, Peltier JP (2005) Biodiversité et biogéographie de l’arganeraie marocaine. Cahiers Agric 14(4):357–364Google Scholar
  28. Nouaim R (2005) L’arganier au Maroc: entre mythes et réalités. L’Harmattan, Paris, p 227SGoogle Scholar
  29. Shabanimofrad M, Rafii MY, Megat Wahab PE, Biabani AR, Latif MA (2013) Phenotypic, genotypic and genetic divergence found in 48 newly collected Malaysian accessions of Jatropha curcas L. Ind Crops Prod 42:543–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shimelis H, Hugo A (2011) Determination of selection criteria for seed yield and seed oil content in Vernonia (Vernonia galamensis variety ethiopica). Ind Crops Prod 33:436–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shimelis H, Mashela P, Hugo A (2011) Genotype by environment interaction of seed and oil yield in vernonia (Vernonia galamensis variety ethiopica). Ind Crops Prod 33:756–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Srivastava P, Behera SK, Gupta J, Jamil S, Singh N, Sharma YK (2011) Growth performance, variability in yield traits and oil content of selected accessions of Jatropha curcas L. growing in a large scale plantation site. Biomass Bioenergy 35:3936–3942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang R, Hanna MA, Zhou WW, Bhadury PS, Chen Q, Song BA, Yang S (2011) Production and selected fuel properties of biodiesel from promising non-edible oils: Euphorbia lathyris L., Sapium sebiferum L. and Jatropha curcas L. Bioresour Technol 102:1194–1199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Waroux YP, Lambin EF (2012) Monitoring degradation in arid and semi-arid forests and woodlands: the case of the argan woodlands (Morocco). Appl Geogr 32:777–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yadav S, Suneja P, Hussain Z, Abraham Z, Mishra SK (2011) Genetic variability and divergence studies in seed and oil parameters of mahua (Madhuca longifolia Koenig) J.F. Macribide accessions. Biomass and bioenergy 35:1773–1778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zaher H, Boulouha B, Baaziz M, Sikaoui L, Gaboun F, Udupa SM (2011) Morphological and genetic diversity in olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea L.) clones and varieties. Plant Omics J 4(7):370–376Google Scholar
  37. Zunzunegui M, Ain-Lhout F, Jáuregui J, Díaz Barradas MC, Boutaleb S, Álvarez-Cansino L, Esquivias MP (2010) Fruit production under different environmental and management conditions of argan, Argania spinosa (L.). J Arid Environ 74:1138–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naïma Ait Aabd
    • 1
  • Fouad Msanda
    • 1
  • Abdelhamid El Mousadik
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biotechnology and Valorization of Natural Resources, Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceIbn Zohr UniversityAgadirMorocco

Personalised recommendations