, Volume 191, Issue 2, pp 311–316 | Cite as

A procedure allowing up to eight generations of wheat and nine generations of barley per annum

  • Z. Zheng
  • H. B. Wang
  • G. D. Chen
  • G. J. Yan
  • C. J. LiuEmail author


Generating segregating populations and ‘pure lines’ is an essential component in many projects of plant breeding and biological studies. Time taken to obtain these materials is often a critical factor restricting the progress of such projects. We report a procedure here which, by combining embryo culture with managements of watering regimes, lighting intensity and duration, temperature and quantity of potting mixture, allows the production of up to eight generations of wheat and nine generations of barley per annum. By dramatically shortening the time frame required to obtain segregating populations and ‘pure lines’, the procedure could find wide applications in breeding and biological studies.


Embryo culture Wheat Barley Generation cycle 



The authors are grateful to Dr John Manners who encouraged us to publish this procedure which has been routinely used in our labs. Z. Zheng would like to thank the University of Western Australia and China Scholarship Council (CSC) for his PhD scholarships, and GD Chen is grateful to CSC and Sichuan Agricultural University for supporting his visit to CSIRO.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Zheng
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • H. B. Wang
    • 4
  • G. D. Chen
    • 1
    • 5
  • G. J. Yan
    • 2
  • C. J. Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.CSIRO Plant IndustrySt LuciaAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and UWA Institute of Agriculture, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  3. 3.National Foxtail Millet Improvement Centre, Institute of Millet Crops, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry SciencesShijiazhuangChina
  4. 4.Hebei Centre of Plant Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Physiology, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry SciencesShijiazhuangChina
  5. 5.Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural UniversityChengduChina

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