Breeding progress for yield in winter wheat genotypes targeted to irrigated environments of the CWANA region
The international winter wheat improvement program (IWWIP), an alliance between Turkey–CIMMYT–ICARDA, has distributed improved germplasm to different National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) partners through international nurseries and yield trials for the last 25 years. This study was carried out in order to determine the rate of breeding progress for yield and yield related traits at IWWIP using data of the international winter wheat yield trials (IWWYT), IWWYT 1–13, collected from 1997 to 2010 in irrigated environments across different countries. The relative grain yield of the best line expressed as percent of the best check (Kinaci-97), widely grown cultivar (Bezostaya) and trial mean (TM) increased at a rate of 0.6, 1.6 and 0.2 %/year, each non-significant (P > 0.05), respectively. Regression analysis indicated that TM has increased at a rate of 91.9 kg/ha/year (P = 0.007). The net realized breeding progress was estimated by accounting the variability due to management and weather conditions using surrogate variables such as integrated biological indices taken as means of common checks. The net realized gain for the BL was 66.2 ± 19.7 kg/ha/year (P = 0.01). Success rate of the BL, per cent of sites where the BL exceeds the local check in grain yield, ranged from 50 to 87 % across trials. To date, more than 55 varieties of IWWIP origin have been released in 10 countries of Central and West Asia including Afghanistan, Turkey, Iran, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Some varieties, such as Solh and Kinaci-97, have been released under different names in different countries indicating their broad adaptation. Cluster analysis of IWWYT sites indicated that IWWIP sites in Turkey and Syria are associated with most of the testing sites in Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) region. The recently identified high yielding genotypes are recommended for direct release and/or parental purposes by the respective NARS.
KeywordsGenetic gain Biological index Time trend Winter wheat Yield
We sincerely acknowledge all the international cooperators for proper handling of trials and data submission on a regular basis. The winter/facultative wheat program at ICARDA was financially supported by grants from the governments of Japan and Portugal to ICARDA. We would like to thank Drs. Habib Ketata and Musa Mosaad for developing the winter wheat program at ICARDA.
- Braun HJ, Ekiz H, Eser V, Keser M, Ketata H, Marcucci G, Morgounov AI, Zencirci N (1998) Breeding priorities of winter wheat programs. In: Braun HJ, Altay F, Kronstad WE, Beniwal SPS, McNab A (Eds) Wheat: prospects for global improvement. Proc. 5th Int. Wheat Conf., Ankara, Developments in plant breeding, vol 6. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p 553–560Google Scholar
- FAO (2012) FAOSTAT agriculture data. Agricultural production 2009. FAO, Rome. http://faostat.fao.org. Accessed 22 Apr 2012
- Fischer RA, Wall PC (1976) Wheat breeding in Mexico and yield increases. J Aust Inst Agric Sci 42:139–148Google Scholar
- Genstat (2007) Genstat release 10.2. Lawes Agricultural Trust (Rothamsted Experimental station), HempsteadGoogle Scholar
- Hodson D, Nazari K (2010) Serious outbreaks of wheat stripe rust or yellow rust in Central and West Asia and North Africa–March/April 2010 (http://globalrust.org/traction/permalink/Pathogen206). Accessed 20 Aug 2012
- Kulshrestha VP, Jain HK (1982) Eighty years of wheat breeding in India: past selection pressures and future prospects. Z. Pflanzenzuchtg 89:19–30Google Scholar
- Morgounov A, Tufan HA, Sharma R, Akin B, Bagci A, Braun HJ, Kaya Y, Keser M, Payne TS, Sonder K, McIntosh R (2012) Global incidence of wheat rusts and powdery mildew during 1969–2010 and durability of resistance of winter wheat variety Bezostaya 1. Eur J Plant Pathol 132:323–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Payne RW (2009) Guide to GenStat® Release 12: Part 2: Statistics. VSN International, 5 The Waterhouse, Waterhouse Street, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire HP1 1ES, UKGoogle Scholar
- Perry M, D’Antuono MF (1989) Yield improvement and associated characteristics of some Australian spring wheat cultivars introduced between 1860 and 1982. Aust J Agric Res 40:457–472Google Scholar