, Volume 190, Issue 1, pp 53–63 | Cite as

Characterization of genetic diversity of puroindoline genes in Mexican wheat landraces

  • Marcela Ayala
  • Carlos Guzmán
  • Juan B. Alvarez
  • Roberto J. Peña


Grain hardness is a major factor determining milling performance of common wheat. It determines the amount of damaged starch generated during milling, and therefore the end use of a given variety. One hundred and two lines from 15 Mexican wheat landraces were analyzed for grain hardness and for its genetic control. Sixteen lines were hard and 86 were soft-textured. All hard lines could be explained by a mutation in either the Pina-D1 or Pinb-D1 genes. In six hard lines there was no amplification of Pina-D1, suggesting that this gene was deleted (Pina-D1b allele). The remaining ten hard lines showed the presence of both Pina-D1 and Pinb-D1. Sequencing the Pinb-D1 genes of the hard lines revealed the presence of two different alleles (Pinb-D1b and Pinb-D1e). The results substantiate the importance of very old Mexican landraces as potential sources of genetic diversity for key quality traits in the development of modern wheat cultivars with different grain textures.


Common wheat Friabilin Genetic variability Grain texture 



This research was supported by Grant AGL2010-19643-C02-01 from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, co-financed with European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) from the European Union. M. Ayala thanks to the Institutional Project Grant from the Fundación Carolina, Universidad de Córdoba (Spain) and Universidad Nacional de Asunción (Paraguay) for a fellowship to carry out a Masters degree. C. Guzmán thanks to the Spanish Ministry of Education (FPU program) for a predoctoral fellowship. The field help of Ana Moral is acknowledged.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 14 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcela Ayala
    • 1
    • 2
  • Carlos Guzmán
    • 1
  • Juan B. Alvarez
    • 1
  • Roberto J. Peña
    • 3
  1. 1.Departamento de Genética, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica y de MontesUniversidad de Córdoba, CeiA3CórdobaSpain
  2. 2.División de Fitomejoramiento, Departamento de Producción Agrícola, Facultad de Ciencias AgrariasUniversidad Nacional de AsunciónSan LorenzoParaguay
  3. 3.International Center of Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT)MexicoMexico

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