Euphytica

, Volume 186, Issue 1, pp 153–163 | Cite as

Mineral bioavailability in grains of Pakistani bread wheat declines from old to current cultivars

  • Shahid Hussain
  • Muhammad Aamer Maqsood
  • Zed Rengel
  • Muhammad Khawar Khan
Article

Abstract

Estimating variation in grain mineral concentration and bioavailability in relation to grain yield and the year of cultivar release is important for breeding wheat with increased content of bioavailable minerals. The grain yield and yield components, grain phytate concentration, and concentration and bioavailability of minerals (zinc Zn, iron Fe and calcium Ca) in wheat grains were estimated in 40 wheat cultivars released in Punjab (Pakistan) during the last five decades. Mean grain Zn and Ca concentrations in current-cultivars were significantly lower (≥14%) than in obsolete cultivars released during the Green Revolution (1965–1976). Much of this variation was related to increased grain weight in current-cultivars. There was a positive correlation among minerals (r = 0.39 or higher, n = 40) and minerals with phytate in wheat grains (r = 0.38 or higher, n = 40). The tested cultivars varied widely in grain yield and grain phytate-to-mineral molar ratios (phytate:mineral). Compared to obsolete cultivars, the current-cultivars had a higher phytate:mineral ratio in grains, indicating poor bioavailability of minerals to humans. The study revealed a non-significant relationship between grain yield and phytate:mineral ratios in grains. Therefore, breeding for lower phytate:mineral ratios in wheat grains can ensure increased mineral bioavailability without significant reduction in the yield potential. Future breeding should be focused on developing new genotypes suitable for mineral biofortification and with increased mineral bioavailability in grains.

Keywords

Bioavailability Biofortification Grain minerals Pakistan Phytate Triticum aestivum L. 

References

  1. Allison LE, Moodie CD (1965) Carbonate. In: Black CA (ed) Methods of soil analysis, part 2: chemical and microbiological properties. Am Soc Agron, Madison, pp 1379–1396Google Scholar
  2. Bouis HE, Welch RM (2010) Biofortification: a sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition in the global south. Crop Sci 50:S20–S32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown KH, Wuehler SE, Peerson JM (2001) The importance of zinc in human nutrition and estimation of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food Nutr Bull 22:113–125Google Scholar
  4. Cakmak I (2008) Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant Soil 302:1–17Google Scholar
  5. Erdal I, Yilmaz A, Taban S, Eker S, Torun B, Cakmak I (2002) Phytic acid and phosphorus concentrations in seeds of wheat cultivars grown with and without zinc fertilization. J Plant Nutr 25:113–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fan MS, Zhao FJ, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Poulton PR, Dunham SJ, McGrath SP (2008) Evidence of decreasing mineral density in wheat grain over the last 160 years. J Trace Elem Med Biol 22:315–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. FAO (2011a) Food Supply Database 2007. Food and Agriculture Organization. http://faostat.fao.org/site/609/default.aspx#ancor. Accessed 16 Jul 2011
  8. FAO (2011b) Crop Production Database 2009. Food and Agriculture Organization. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/default.aspx#ancor. Accessed 16 Jul 2011
  9. Fatima M, Nawaz H, Kassi M, Rehman R, Kasi PM, Kassi M, Afghan AK, Baloch SN (2009) Determining the risk factors and prevalence of osteoporosis using quantitative ultrasonography in Pakistani adult women. Singapore Med J 50:20–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ficco DBM, Riefolo C, Nicastro G, Simone VD, Gesu AMD, Beleggia R, Platani C (2009) Phytate and mineral elements concentration in a collection of Italian durum wheat cultivars. Field Crop Res 111:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gee GW, Bauder JW (1986) Particle–size analysis. In: Page AL (ed) Methods of soil analysis. part 1: physical and mineralogical methods, 2nd edn, agronomy monograph, vol 9. Am Soc Agron, Madison, pp 383–409Google Scholar
  12. Gibson RS (2006) Zinc: the missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries. Proc Nutr Soc 65:51–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Graham R, Senadhira D, Beebe S, Iglesias C, Monasterio I (1999) Breeding for micronutrient density in edible portions of staple food crops: conventional approaches. Field Crops Res 60:57–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hallberg L, Brune M, Rossander L (1989) Iron absorption in man: ascorbic acid and dose-dependent inhibition by phytate. Am J Clin Nutr 49:140–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Haug W, Lantzsch H (1983) Sensitive method for the rapid determination of phytate in cereals and cereal products. J Sci Food Agric 34:1423–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hussain S, Maqsood MA, Rahmatullah (2010) Increasing grain zinc and yield of wheat for the developing world: a review. Em J Food Agric 22:326–339Google Scholar
  17. Hussain S, Maqsood MA, Miller LV (2011) Bioavailable zinc in grains of bread wheat varieties of Pakistan. Cereal Res Commun. doi:10.1556/CRC.2011.003
  18. Jones JRJ, Case VW (1990) Sampling, handling, and analysing plant tissue samples. In: Westerman RL (ed) Soil testing and plant analysis. Soil Sci Soc Am, Madison, pp 389–428Google Scholar
  19. Joshi AK, Crossa J, Arun B, Chand R, Trethowan R, Vargas M, Ortiz-Monasterio I (2010) Genotype × environment interaction for zinc and iron concentration of wheat grain in eastern Gangetic plains of India. Field Crops Res 116:268–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lindsay WL, Norvell WA (1978) Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu ZH, Wang HY, Wang XE, Zhang GP, Chen PD, Liu DJ (2006) Genotypic and spike positional difference in grain phytase activity, phytate, inorganic phosphorus, iron and zinc contents in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J Cereal Sci 44:212–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McDonald GK, Genc Y, Graham RD (2008) A simple method to evaluate genetic variation in grain zinc concentration by correcting for differences in grain yield. Plant Soil 306:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. MINFAL (2009) Agricultural statistics of Pakistan 2008–09. Ministry of Food Agriculture Livestock, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  24. MINH (2009) National health policy 2009: stepping towards better health. Ministry of Health, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  25. Morgounov A, Zykin V, Belan I, Roseeva L, Zelenskiy Y (2010) Gomez-Becerra HF, Budak H, Bekes F, Genetic gains for grain yield in high latitude spring wheat grown in Western Siberia in 1900–2008. Field Crops Res 117:101–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morris ER, Ellis R (1985) Bioavailability of dietary calcium-effect of phytate on adult men consuming nonvegetarian diets. In: Kies C (ed) American chemical society symposium 275: nutritional bioavailability of calcium. Am Chem Soc, Wagenington, p 63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Morris CE, Sands DC (2006) The breeder’s dilemma-yield or nutrition? Nature Biotech 24:1078–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Murphy KM, Reeves PG, Jones SS (2008) Relationship between yield and mineral nutrient concentrations in historical and modern spring wheat cultivars. Euphytica 163:381–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Klute A (ed) Methods of soil analysis, part 2: chemical and microbiological properties. agronomy monograph, vol 9. Soil Sci Soc Am, Madison, pp 570–571Google Scholar
  30. Rengel Z, Römheld V (2000) Differential tolerance to Fe and Zn deficiencies in wheat germplasm. Euphytica 113:219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sadras VO (2007) Evolutionary aspects of the trade-off between seed size and seed number in crops. Field Crops Res 100:125–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dickey DA (1997) Principles and procedures of statistics. a bio-metrical approach, 3rd edn. McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Stein AJ, Nestel P, Meenakshi JV, Qaim M, Sachdev HPS, Bhutta ZA (2007) Plant breeding to control zinc deficiency in India: how cost-effective is biofortification? Pub Health Nutr 10:492–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Turnlund JR, King JC, Keyes WR, Gong B, Michel MC (1984) A stable isotope study of zinc absorption in young men: effects on phytate and α-cellulose. Am J Clin Nutr 40:1071–1077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Uauy C, Distelfeld A, Fahima T, Blechl A, Dubcovsky J (2006) A NAC gene regulating senescence improves grain protein, zinc, and iron content in wheat. Science 314:1298–1300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang Z-H, Li S-X, Malhi S (2008) Effects of fertilization and other agronomic measures on nutritional quality of crops. J Sci Food Agric 88:7–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Waters BM, Uauy C, Dubcovsky J, Grusak MA (2009) Wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAM proteins regulate the translocation of iron, zinc, and nitrogen compounds from vegetative tissues to grain. J Exp Bot 60:4263–4274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Weaver CM, Kannan S (2002) Phytate and mineral bioavailability. In: Reddy NR, Sathe SK (eds) Food Phytate. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 211–223Google Scholar
  39. White PJ, Broadley MR (2009) Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets—iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine. New Phytol 182:49–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. WHO (2002) World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhao FJ, Su YH, Dunham SJ, Rakszegi M, Bedo Z, McGrath SP, Shewry PR (2009) Variation in mineral micronutrient concentrations in grain of wheat lines of diverse origin. J Cereal Sci 49:290–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shahid Hussain
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muhammad Aamer Maqsood
    • 1
  • Zed Rengel
    • 2
  • Muhammad Khawar Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.School of Earth and EnvironmentThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations