Advertisement

Euphytica

, Volume 184, Issue 1, pp 47–56 | Cite as

Genetic basis of control of Rhynchosporium secalis infection and symptom expression in barley

  • M. E. Looseley
  • A. C. Newton
  • S. D. Atkins
  • B. D. L. Fitt
  • B. A. Fraaije
  • W. T. B. Thomas
  • R. Keith
  • M. Macaulay
  • J. Lynott
  • D. Harrap
Article

Abstract

The genetic basis of several different components of resistance to Rhynchosporium secalis in barley was investigated in a mapping population derived from a cross between winter and spring barley types. Both the severity of visual disease symptoms and amount of R. secalis DNA in leaf tissues were assessed in field trials in Scotland in the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 growing seasons. Relative expression of symptoms was defined as the residual values from a linear regression of amount of R. secalis DNA against visual plot disease score at GS 50. Amount of R. secalis DNA and visual disease score were highly correlated traits and identified nearly identical QTL. The genetic control of relative expression of symptoms was less clear. However, a QTL on chromosome 7H was identified as having a significant effect on the expression of visual disease symptoms relative to overall amount of R. secalis colonisation.

Keywords

Asymptomatic colonisation Disease resistance Leaf scald Mapping population QTL Barley leaf blotch 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Scottish Government Rural and Environment Research and Analysis Directorate (RERAD), the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Sustainable Arable LINK programme for funding this research, and KWS for providing the mapping population used in the study. Thanks are also due to Professor John Lucas for his contributions to the project and to the estate staff at the James Hutton Institute, as well as Dr Christine Hackett for advice on statistical analysis. The authors also wish to thank two anonymous referees for useful comments and suggestions.

References

  1. Abang MM, Baum M, Ceccarelli S, Grando S, Linde CC, Yahyaoui AH, Zhan J, McDonald BA (2006) Pathogen evolution in response to host resistance genes: evidence from fields experiments with Rhynchosporium secalis on barley. Phytopathology 96:S2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkins SD, Fitt BD, Fraaije BA, Harvey S, Lynott J, Newton AC (2010) The epidemiological importance of asymptomatic infection of winter barley by Rhynchosporium secalis and its consequences for crop protection and breeding. Proc Crop Prot Northern Britain 2010:81–86Google Scholar
  3. Barua UM, Chalmers KJ, Thomas WTB, Hackett CA, Lea V, Jack P, Forster BP, Waugh R, Powell W (1993) Molecular mapping of genes determining height, time to heading, and growth habit in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Genome 36:1080–1087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bearchell SJ, Fraaije BA, Shaw MW, Fitt BD (2005) Wheat archive links long-term fungal pathogen population dynamics to air pollution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:5438–5442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boer MP, Wright D, Feng LZ, Podlich DW, Luo L, Cooper M, van Eeuwijk FA (2007) A mixed-model quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for multiple-environment trial data using environmental covariables for QTL-by-environment interactions, with an example in maize. Genetics 177:1801–1813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brun H, Chevre AM, Fitt BDL, Powers S, Besnard AL, Ermel M, Huteau V, Marquer B, Eber F, Renard M, Andrivon D (2010) Quantitative resistance increases the durability of qualitative resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus. New Phytol 185:285–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen A, Baumann U, Fincher GB, Collins NC (2009) Flt-2L, a locus in barley controlling flowering time, spike density, and plant height. Funct Integr Genomics 9:243–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Close T, Bhat P, Lonardi S, Wu Y, Rostoks N, Ramsay L, Druka A, Stein N, Svensson J, Wanamaker S, Bozdag S, Roose M, Moscou M, Chao S, Varshney R, Szucs P, Sato K, Hayes P, Matthews D, Kleinhofs A, Muehlbauer G, DeYoung J, Marshall D, Madishetty K, Fenton R, Condamine P, Graner A, Waugh R (2009) Development and implementation of high-throughput SNP genotyping in barley. BMC Genomics 10:582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis H, Fitt BDL (1990) Symptomless infection of Rhynchosporium secalis on leaves of winter barley. Mycol Res 94:557–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fitt BDL, Mccartney HA, Creighton NF, Lacey ME, Walklate PJ (1988) Dispersal of Rhynchosporium secalis conidia from infected barley leaves or straw by simulated rain. Ann Appl Biol 112:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fitt BD, Atkins SD, Fraaije BA, Lucas JA, Newton AC, Looseley ME, Werner P, Harrap D, Ashworth M, Southgate J, Phillips H, Gilchrist A (2010) Role of inoculum sources in Rhynchosporium population dynamics and epidemiology on barley. HGCA Final report, Project Number RD-2004-3099Google Scholar
  12. Fountaine JA, Shaw MW, Napier B, Ward E, Fraaije BA (2007) Application of real-time and multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays to study leaf blotch epidemics in barley. Phytopathology 97:297–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fountaine JM, Shaw MW, Ward E, Fraaije BA (2010) The role of seeds and airborne inoculum in the initiation of leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis) epidemics in winter barley. Plant Pathol 59:330–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hahn M, Jüngling S, Knogge W (1993) Cultivar-specific elicitation of barley defense reactions by the phytotoxic peptide NIP1 from Rhynchosporium secalis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 6:745–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hanemann A, Schweizer GF, Cossu R, Wicker T, Roder MS (2009) Fine mapping, physical mapping and development of diagnostic markers for the Rrs2 scald resistance gene in barley. Theor Appl Genet 119:1507–1522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lehnackers H, Knogge W (1990) Cytological studies on the infection of barley cultivars with known resistance genotypes by Rhynchosporium secalis. Can J Bot 68:1953–1961Google Scholar
  17. Li J, Ji L (2005) Adjusting multiple testing in multilocus analyses using the eigenvalues of a correlation matrix. Heredity 95:221–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Newton AC, Hackett CA (1994) Subjective components of mildew assessment on spring barley. Eur J Plant Pathol 100:395–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Newton AC, Searle J, Guy DC, Hackett CA, Cooke DEL (2001) Variability in pathotype, aggressiveness, RAPD profile, and rDNA ITS1 sequences of UK isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis. Z Pflanzenk Pflanzen 108:446–458Google Scholar
  20. Newton AC, Swanston JS, Guy DC (2004) Enhanced durability and utility of genes for resistance by deployment in cultivar mixtures. In: Proceedings of molecular plant-microbe interactions XI, St Petersburg, 18–26 July 2003, pp 240–243Google Scholar
  21. Payne RW, Murray DA, Harding SA, Soutar DM (2009) GenStat for Windows (12th edn) introduction. VSN International, Hemel HempsteadGoogle Scholar
  22. Thomas WTB, Newton AC, Wilson A, Meyer RC, Young GR, Lawrence PE (2010) QTLs for disease resistance mapped in Derkado x B83-12/21/5. Barley genetics VIII In: Proceedings of the 8th International Barley Genetics Symposium, Adelaide, pp 186–188Google Scholar
  23. Turkington T, Burnett PA, Briggs KG, Xi K (1998) Screening for scald resistance for future Alberta barley varieties Final report, Alberta Barley Commission Project No. 60-058Google Scholar
  24. Van Ooijen JW (2006) JoinMap® 4 Software for the calculation of genetic linkage maps in experimental populations of diploid species. Kyazma BV, Wageningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  25. Walters DR, McRoberts N, Fitt BDL (2008) Are green islands red herrings? Significance of green islands in plant interactions with pathogens and pests. Biol Rev 83:79–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Xi K, Xue AG, Burnett PA, Helm JH, Turkington TK (2000) Quantitative resistance of barley cultivars to Rhynchosporium secalis. Can J Plant Pathol 22:217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zadoks JC, Chang TT, Konzak CF (1974) A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Res 14:415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhan J, Fitt BDL, Pinnschmidt HO, Oxley SJP, Newton AC (2008) Resistance, epidemiology and sustainable management of Rhynchosporium secalis populations on barley. Plant Pathol 57:1–14Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. E. Looseley
    • 1
  • A. C. Newton
    • 1
  • S. D. Atkins
    • 2
  • B. D. L. Fitt
    • 2
    • 4
  • B. A. Fraaije
    • 2
  • W. T. B. Thomas
    • 1
  • R. Keith
    • 1
  • M. Macaulay
    • 1
  • J. Lynott
    • 1
  • D. Harrap
    • 3
  1. 1.The James Hutton InstituteDundeeUK
  2. 2.Rothamsted ResearchHertfordshireUK
  3. 3.KWS UK LtdHertfordshireUK
  4. 4.University of HertfordshireHertfordshireUK

Personalised recommendations