, Volume 179, Issue 1, pp 143–160 | Cite as

Global status of wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina

  • J. Huerta-Espino
  • R. P. Singh
  • S. Germán
  • B. D. McCallum
  • R. F. Park
  • W. Q. Chen
  • S. C. Bhardwaj
  • H. Goyeau


Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is the most common and widely distributed of the three wheat rusts. Losses from leaf rust are usually less damaging than those from stem rust and stripe rust, but leaf rust causes greater annual losses due to its more frequent and widespread occurrence. Yield losses from leaf rust are mostly due to reductions in kernel weight. Many laboratories worldwide conduct leaf rust surveys and virulence analyses. Most currently important races (pathotypes) have either evolved through mutations in existing populations or migrated from other, often unknown, areas. Several leaf rust resistance genes are cataloged, and high levels of slow rusting adult plant resistance are available in high yielding CIMMYT wheats. This paper summarizes the importance of leaf rust in the main wheat production areas as reflected by yield losses, the complexity of virulence variation in pathogen populations, the role cultivars with race-specific resistance play in pathogen evolution, and the control measures currently practiced in various regions of the world.


Triticum aestivum Triticum turgidum Resistance Races 


  1. Abdel-Hak TM, EL-Sherif NA, Bassiouny AA, Shafik EL, Dauadi Y (1980) Control of wheat leaf rust by systemic fungicides. In: Proceedings of 5th European and Mediterranean cereal rusts conference. Bari, Italy, pp 255–266Google Scholar
  2. Afshari F (2008) Identification of virulence factors of Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust in Iran. In: Appels R, Eastwood R, Lagudah E, Langridge P, Mackay M, McIntyre L, Sharp P (eds) Proceedings of 11th international wheat genet symposium, Vol 3. Sydney University Press, Sydney, Australia, pp 709–711Google Scholar
  3. Afshari F, Torabi M, Kia S, Dadrezaei ST, Safavi SA, Chaichi M, Karbalaei KH, Zakeri A, Nasrollahi M, Patpour M, Ebrahimnezhad S (2006) Monitoring of virulence factors of Puccinia triticina Eriksson, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust in Iran during 2002–2004. Seed Plant 21:485–496Google Scholar
  4. Anikster Y, Bushnell WR, Eilam T, Manisterski J, Roelfs AP (1997) Puccinia recondita causing leaf rust on cultivated wheats, wild wheats, and rye. Can J Bot 75:2082–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Appel JA, DeWolf E, Bockus WW, Todd T (2009) Kansas cooperative plant disease survey report preliminary Kansas wheat disease loss estimates. August 11, 2009 Accessed 29 November 2010
  6. Ausemus ER, Harrington JB, Reitz LP, Worzella WW (1946) A summary of genetic studies in hexaploid and tetraploid wheats. Agron J 38:1082–1099Google Scholar
  7. Bartos P, Huszar J (1998) Virulence of the wheat leaf rust populations in Slovakia in 1966. Biologia (Bratislava) 53:99–105Google Scholar
  8. Bartos P, Stuchlikova E (1999) Wheat leaf rust races/pathotypes in the Czech Republic in 1997–1998. Plant Prot Sci 2:51–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bartos P, Stuchlikova E, Hanusova R (1992) Wheat leaf and stem rust virulences in Czechoslovakia (1970–1990). Vortr Pflanzenz 24:91–93Google Scholar
  10. Bartos P, Stuchlikova E, Hanusova R (1996) Adaptation of wheat rusts to the wheat cultivars in former Czechoslovakia. Euphytica 92:95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bender CM, Pretorius ZA, Spies JJ (1997) Assessment of macroscopic components of leaf rust resistance in wheat genotypes containing Lr12 and Lr13. SA J Plant Soil 14:71–80Google Scholar
  12. Bhardwaj SC, Prashar M, Kumar S, Jain SK, Datta D (2005) Lr19 resistance in wheat becomes susceptible to Puccinia triticina in India. Plant Dis 89:1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhardwaj SC, Prashar M, Jain SK, Kumar S, Datta D (2010a) Adult plant resistance in some Indian wheat genotypes and postulation of leaf rust resistance genes. Indian Phytopathol 63:174–180Google Scholar
  14. Bhardwaj SC, Prashar M, Jain SK, Kumar S, Sharma YP (2010b) Physiologic specialization of Puccinia triticina on wheat (Triticum species) in India. Indian J Agric Sci 80:805–811Google Scholar
  15. Bhardwaj SC, Prashar M, Jain SK, Kumar S et al (2010c) Virulence on Lr28 in wheat and its relation to prevalent pathotypes in India. Cereal Res Commun 38:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Browder LE (1980) A compendium of information about named genes for low reaction to Puccinia recondita in wheat. Crop Sci 20:775–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Campos P (2008) Dinámica de la población de Puccinia triticina, durante los años 2005 y 2006 en Argentina: efectividad de genes de resistencia en plántula a roya de la hoja de trigo. In: VII Congreso Nacional de Trigo, 2008, Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. INTA/Universidad Nacional de la Pampa, Santa Rosa, ArgentinaGoogle Scholar
  18. Casulli F, Pasquini M (1992) Virulence of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici in Italy. Vortr Pflanzenz 24:87–89Google Scholar
  19. Casulli F, Pasquini M (1998) Pathogenicity of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici in Italy from 1993 to 1996. Phytopathol Mediterr 2:51–57Google Scholar
  20. Chaves MS (2008) Prevalência da raça B55 de Puccinia triticina no Brasil em 2007. In: II Reunião da Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Trigo, 2008, Passo Fundo, Brasil. Ata e resumos. Subcomissão de Fitopatologia; resumo 17. Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo. pp 41 Accessed 9 March 2009
  21. Chaves MS, Wesp CL, Barcellos AL, Scheeren PL et al (2009) Superação da resistência qualitativa da cultivar de trigo ‘BRS 194’ por uma nova raça de Puccinia triticina. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria 39:228–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen WQ, Ming QQ, Lin CY, Bai YS (1998) Virulence dynamics of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici in China during 1992–1996. Acta Phytopathol Sin 2:101–106Google Scholar
  23. Chester KS (1946) The nature and prevention of cereal rusts as exemplified in the leaf rust of wheat. Chronica Botanica Co., Waltham, Mass, p 269Google Scholar
  24. D’Oliveira B, Samborski DJ (1966) Aecial stage of Puccinia recondita on Ranunculaceae and Boraginaceae in Portugal. In: Proceedings of 1st European brown rust conference, cereal rusts conferences, Cambridge (UK), 1964. Plant Breeding Institute, Cambridge, pp 133–150Google Scholar
  25. Deghais M, El-Faleh M, Gharbi MS (1999) Acquis de la recherche en amélioration des céréales en Tunisie. Ann INRAT 26:33–40Google Scholar
  26. Dubin HJ, Torres E (1981) Causes and consequences of the 1976–77 wheat leaf rust epidemic in northwest Mexico. Annu Rev Phytopathol 19:44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ezzahiri B, Diouri S, Roelfs AP (1992) Anchusa italica as an alternate host for leaf rust in Morocco. Plant Dis 76:1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Germán S, Kohli M, Chaves M, Barcellos A et al. (2004) Breakdown of resistance of wheat cultivars and estimated losses caused by recent changes in the leaf rust population in South America. In: Proceedings of 11th international cereal rusts and powdery mildews conference abstract. John Innes Centre, Norwich, England, UK, pp A2.21Google Scholar
  29. Germán S, Barcellos A, Chaves M, Kohli M (2007) The situation of common wheat rusts in the Southern Cone of America and perspectives for control. Aust J Agric Res 58:620–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goyeau H, Park R, Schaeffer B, Lannou C (2006) Distribution of pathotypes with regard to host cultivars in French wheat leaf rust populations. Phytopathology 96:264–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hanzalova A, Bartos P (2006) Physiologic specialization of wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) in the Czech Republic in 2001–2004. Czech J Genet Plant Breed 42:126–131Google Scholar
  32. Hassan SF, Hussain M, Rizvi SA (1973) Wheat disease situation in Pakistan. Proceedings of national farmers and wheat research production, Islamabad. August 6–9, pp 231–234Google Scholar
  33. Huerta EJ, Singh RP, Leyva MSG, Villaseñor MHE, Espitia RE (2006) Unnecessary virulence in isolates of Puccinia triticina. XXXIII Congreso Nacional de Fitopatologia y VIII Congreso Internacional de Fitopatoplogia, Manzanillo Colima, México, 17 al 20 de Julio del 2006, pp C-138Google Scholar
  34. Huerta-Espino J (1992) Analysis of wheat leaf and stem rust virulence on a worldwide basis. PhD thesis, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  35. Huerta-Espino J, Roelfs AP (1989) Physiological specialization of leaf rust on durum wheat. Phytopathology 79:1218Google Scholar
  36. Huerta-Espino J, Singh RP (1994) First report of virulence for wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr19 in Mexico. Plant Dis 78:640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huerta-Espino J, Singh RP (1996) Misconceptions on the durability of some adult plant resistance genes in wheat. Cereal Rusts Powdery Mildews Bull 24:109–111Google Scholar
  38. Huerta-Espino J, Singh RP, Reyna-Martinez J (2008) First report of virulence to leaf rust resistance genes Lr9 and Lr25 in Mexico. Plant Dis 92:311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huerta-Espino J, Singh RP, Herrera-Foessel SA, Perez-Lopez JB, Figueroa-Lopez P (2009) First detection of virulence in Puccinia triticina to resistance genes Lr27 + Lr31 present in durum wheat in Mexico. Plant Dis 93:110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hussain M, Hassan SF, Kirmani MAS (1980) Virulence in Puccinia recondita Rob. ex. Desm. f. sp. tritici in Pakistan during 1978 and 1979. Proceedings of 5th European and Mediterranean cereal rust conference, Bari, Italy, pp 179–184Google Scholar
  41. Huszar J, Bartos P, Hanzalova A, Herzova E (2004) Variability of leaf rust and effectiveness of genes of resistance in Slovakia in 1995–2001. Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica 7:93–96Google Scholar
  42. Johnston CO, Browder LE (1966) Seventh revision of the international register of physiologic races of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici. Plant Dis Rep 50:756–760Google Scholar
  43. Johnston CO, Mains EB (1932) Studies on physiological specialization in Puccinia triticina. USDA Tech Bull 313, 22 ppGoogle Scholar
  44. Joshi LM, Srivastava KD, Ramanujam K (1975) An analysis of brown rust epidemics of 1971–72 and 1972–73. Indian Phytopathol 28:138Google Scholar
  45. Keed BR, White NH (1971) Quantitative effects of leaf and stem rust on yield and quality of wheat. Austr J Exp Agric An Hus 11:550–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kolmer JA (1989) Virulence and race dynamics of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici in Canada during 1956–1987. Phytopathology 79:349–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kolmer JA (1992) Diversity of virulence phenotypes and effect of host sampling between and within populations of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici in Canada. Plant Dis 76:618–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kolmer JA, Grabowski M (1996) Population genetics of the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina in Central Asia. Phytopathology 96:S62Google Scholar
  49. Kolmer JA, Liu JQ (2000) Virulence and molecular polymorphism in international collections of the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina. Phytopathology 90:427–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kolmer JA, Ordoñez ME (2007) Genetic differentiation of Puccinia triticina populations in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Phytopathology 97:1141–1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kolmer JA, Long DL, Hughes ME (2004) Physiologic specialization of Puccinia triticina in the United States in 2002. Plant Dis 88:1079–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kolmer JA, Jin Y, Long DL (2007) Leaf and stem rust of wheat in the United States. Aust J Agric Res 58:631–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kolmer JA, Long DL, Hughes ME (2009) Physiologic specialization of Puccinia triticina on wheat in the United States in 2007. Plant Dis 93:538–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Leonard KJ, Roelfs AP, Long DL (1992) Diversity of virulence within and among collections of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici in different areas of the United States. Plant Dis 76:500–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Li ZF, Xia XC, He ZH, Li X et al (2010) Seedling and slow rusting resistance to leaf rust in Chinese wheat cultivars. Plant Dis 94:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lind V, Gultyaeva E (2006) Virulence frequencies of Puccinia triticina in Germany and the European regions of the Russian Federation. J Phytopathol 155:13–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Loegering WQ (1961) Application of the genetics of the host-pathogen relationship in stem rust of wheat to epidemiological studies. Proc. Coloq. Eur. Roya Negra Cereales, 2nd, Madrid. April, 1961Google Scholar
  58. Loegering WQ, Browder LE (1971) A system of nomenclature for physiologic races of Puccinia recondita tritici. Plant Dis Rep 55:718–722Google Scholar
  59. Loegering WQ, Johnston CO, Samborski DJ, Caldwell RM, Schafer JF, Young HC Jr (1959) A proposed modification of the system of wheat leaf rust race identification and nomenclature. Plant Dis Rep 43:613–615Google Scholar
  60. Loegering WQ, Johnston CO, Samborski DJ, Caldwell RM, Schafer JF, Young HC Jr (1961) The North American 1961 set of supplemental differential wheat varieties for leaf rust race identification. Plant Dis Rep 45:444–447Google Scholar
  61. Long DL, Kolmer JA (1989) A North American system of nomenclature for Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici. Phytopathology 79:525–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mains EB, Jackson HS (1921) Two strains of Puccinia triticina in wheat in the United States. Phytopathology 11:40 (abstr)Google Scholar
  63. Mains EB, Jackson HS (1926) Physiologic specialization in the leaf rust of wheat, Puccinia triticina Erikss. Phytopathology 16:89–120Google Scholar
  64. Manninger K (2006) Physiological specialization of Puccinia triticina on wheat and triticale in Hungary in 2004. Acta Phytopathol Entomol Hung 41:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mantovani P, Maccaferri M, Tuberosa R, Kolmer JA (2010) Virulence phenotypes and molecular genotypes in collections of Puccinia triticina from Italy. Plant Dis 94:420–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Martinez F, Sillero JC, Rubiales D (2005) Pathogenic specialization of Puccinia triticina in Andalusia from 1998 to 2000. J Phytopathol 153:344–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McCallum BD, DePauw RM (2008) A review of wheat cultivars grown in the Canadian prairies. Can J Plant Sci 88:649–677Google Scholar
  68. McCallum BD, Seto-Goh P (2008) Physiologic specialization of Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust, in Canada in 2005. Can J Plant Pathol 30:124–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McCallum BD, Seto-Goh P (2009) Physiologic specialization of Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust, in Canada in 2006. Can J Plant Pathol 31:80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. McCallum BD, Fetch T, Chong J (2007) Cereal rust control in Canada. Austr J Agric Res 58:639–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McIntosh RA, Yamazaki Y, Dubcovsky J, Rogers J, Morris C, Somers DJ, Appels R, Devos KM (2008) Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat. Accessed 29 November 2010
  72. McVey DV, Nazim M, Leonard KJ, Long DL (2004) Patterns of virulence diversity in Puccinia triticina on wheat in Egypt and the United States in 1998–2000. Plant Dis 88:271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mesterházy A, Bartos P, Goyeau H, Niks RE, Csõsz M et al (2000) European virulence survey for leaf rust in wheat. Agronomie 20:793–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mikhailova LA (2009) 2003–2009 Project interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds.
  75. Mosbahi M, Yahyaoui A, Sayar R, Hajlaoui MR, Sakkouhi L, Daaloul A (2009) Virulence analysis of Puccinia recondita in Tunisia during the period 2005–2007. Tunisian J Plant Prot 4:111–120Google Scholar
  76. Murray GM, Brennan JP (2009) The current and potential costs from diseases of wheat in Australia. Grains Research and Development Corporation, Canberra 69 ppGoogle Scholar
  77. Nagarajan S, Joshi LM (1978) Epidemiology of brown and yellow rusts of wheat in north India. II. Associated meteorolgy conditions. Plant Dis Reptr 62:186–188Google Scholar
  78. Nagarajan S, Nayar SK, Bahadur P (1983) The proposed brown rust of wheat (Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici) virulence monitoring system. Curr Sci 52:413–416Google Scholar
  79. Nayar SK, Jain SK, Prashar M, Bhardwaj SC, Kumar S, Menon MK (2003) Appearance of new pathotype of Puccinia recondita tritici virulent on Lr9 in India. Indian Phytopathol 56:196–198Google Scholar
  80. Nocente F, Gazza L, Pasquini M (2007) Evaluation of leaf rust resistance genes Lr1, Lr9, Lr24, Lr47 and their introgression into common wheat cultivars by marker-assisted selection. Euphytica 155:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Olmo Del AI, Rubiales D (2004) Physiological specialization of Pucinia triticina in Andalucia (Spain) in 2003. In: Proceedings of 11th international cereal rusts & powdery mildews conference abstract. John Innes Centre, Norwich, England, UK, pp A2.15Google Scholar
  82. Ordoñez ME, Kolmer JA (2007) Simple sequence repeat diversity of a world-wide collection of Puccinia triticina from durum wheat. Phytopathology 97:574–583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ordoñez ME, Kolmer JA, Szabo LJ (2005) Genetic diversity of a world-wide collection of Puccinia triticina from durum wheat using simple sequence repeat markers and rDNA sequence. Phytopathology 95:S78 [Abstract]Google Scholar
  84. Ordoñez ME, Germán SE, Kolmer JA (2010) Genetic differentiation within the Puccinia triticina population in South America and comparison with the North American population suggests common ancestry and intercontinental migration. Phytopathology 100:376–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Park RF (1996) Pathogenic specialization of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici in Australia and New Zealand in 1990 and 1991. Austr Plant Pathol 25:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Park RF (2008) Breeding cereal for rust resistance in Australia. Plant Pathol 57:591–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Park RF, Felsenstein FG (1998) Physiological specialization and pathotype distribution of Puccinia recondita in Western Europe, 1995. Plant Pathol 47:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Park RF, Burdon JJ, McIntosh RA (1995) Studies on the origin, spread, and evolution of an important group of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici pathotypes in Australasia. Eur J Plant Pathol 101:613–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Park RF, Jahoor A, Felsenstein FG (2000) Genetic variation in European populations of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici using pathogenicity and molecular markers. Phytopathology 148:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pretorius ZA, Bender CM (2010) First report of virulence for the wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance gene Lr32 in South Africa. Plant Dis 94:381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pretorius ZA, Rijkenberg FHJ, Wilcoxson RD (1987) Occurrence and pathogenicity of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici on wheat in South Africa from 1983 through 1985. Plant Dis 71:1133–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rattu AR, Ahmad I, Fayyaz M, Akhtar MA, Ulhaque I, Zakria M, Afzal SN (2009) Virulence analysis of Puccinia triticina cause of leaf rust of wheat. Pak J Bot 41:1957–1964Google Scholar
  93. Rees RG, Platz GJ (1975) Control of wheat leaf rust with 4-n-butyl-1, 2, 4-triazole. Austr J Exp Agric Anim Husb 15:276–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Roelfs AP, Singh RP, Saari EE (1992) Rust diseases of wheat. Concepts and methods of disease management. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., MexicoGoogle Scholar
  95. Saari EE, Prescott JM (1985) World distribution in relation to economic losses. In: Roelfs AP, Bushnell WR (eds) The cereal rusts, vol 2. Academic Press, Orlando, FL, pp 259–298Google Scholar
  96. Sibikeev SN, Krupnov VA, Voronina SA, Elesin VA (1996) First report of leaf rust pathotypes virulent to highly effective Lr-genes transferred from Agropyron species to bread wheat. Plant Breed 115:276–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Singh RP (1991) Pathogenicity variations of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. tritici in wheat-growing areas of Mexico during 1988 and 1989. Plant Dis 75:790–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Singh RP, Dubin HJ (1997) Sustainable control of wheat diseases in Mexico. In: Primer Simposio Internacional de Trigo Memorias, 7–9 de abril de 1997. Cd. Obregon, Sonora, Mexico, pp 93–102Google Scholar
  99. Singh RP, McIntosh RA (1985) Genetic basis of leaf rust resistance in wheat cultivar Mediterranean. Cereal Rusts Bull 13:31–36Google Scholar
  100. Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, Pfeiffer W, Figueroa-Lopez P (2004a) Occurrence and impact of a new leaf rust race on durum wheat in northwestern Mexico from 2001 to 2003. Plant Dis 88:703–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Singh RP, William HM, Huerta-Espino J, Rosewarne G (2004b). Wheat rust in Asia: meeting the challenges with old and new technologies. In: New directions for a diverse planet: Proceedings of 4th international crop science congress Accessed 29 November 2007
  102. Terefe T, Paul I, Mebalo J, Naicker K, Meyer L (2009) Occurrence and pathogenicity of Puccinia triticina on wheat in South Africa during 2007. SA J Plant Soil 26:51–54Google Scholar
  103. Viennot-Bourgin G (1941) Diagnose Latine de Puccinia tritici-duri. Ann Ecole Nationale Agric Grignon Paris C Amat Ser 2:146Google Scholar
  104. Volkova GV, Alekseeva TP, Anpilogova LK, Dobryanskaya MV, Vaganova OF, Kol’bin DA (2009) Phytopathological characteristics of leaf rust resistance of new winter wheat varieties. Russian Agric Sci 35:168–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wang X, Bakkeren G, McCallum B (2010) Virulence and molecular polymorphisms of the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina in Canada from 1997 to 2007. Amer J Bot 88:575–589Google Scholar
  106. Watson IA, Luig NH (1961) Leaf rust on wheat in Australia: a systematic scheme for the classification of strains. Proc Linn Soc NSW 86:241–250Google Scholar
  107. Yahyaoui A, Hakim S, Al-Naimi M, Nachit MM (2000) Multiple disease resistance in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum). Series A: Seminaires Ciheam 387–392. Accessed 29 November 2007
  108. Young HC Jr, Browder LE (1965) The North American 1965 set of supplemental differential wheat varieties for identification of races of Puccinia recondita tritici. Plant Dis Reptr 49:308–311Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Huerta-Espino
    • 1
  • R. P. Singh
    • 2
  • S. Germán
    • 3
  • B. D. McCallum
    • 4
  • R. F. Park
    • 5
  • W. Q. Chen
    • 6
  • S. C. Bhardwaj
    • 7
  • H. Goyeau
    • 8
  1. 1.Campo Experimental Valle de México INIFAPChapingo, Edo de MéxicoMéxico
  2. 2.International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)México D.FMéxico
  3. 3.INIA La EstanzuelaColoniaUruguay
  4. 4.Agri-Food Canada, Cereal Research CentreWinnipegCanada
  5. 5.University of Sydney Plant Breeding InstituteCobbittyAustralia
  6. 6.Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  7. 7.ICARFlowerdale, ShimlaIndia
  8. 8.INRA, UMR BIOGER-CPP, BP 01Thiverval-GrignonFrance

Personalised recommendations