Euphytica

, Volume 178, Issue 3, pp 437–447 | Cite as

Evaluation of seedling cold tolerance in rice cultivars: a comparison of visual ratings and quantitative indicators of physiological changes

Article

Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is sensitive to prolonged exposure to low temperature, which at the seedling stage can result in significant chilling injury and mortality. The objective of this study was to quantify physiological and biochemical changes in rice seedlings undergoing chilling stress and compare those changes with visual evaluation of tolerance. Seedlings from the cultivars M-202 (tolerant) and IR50 (sensitive) were subjected to 9°C for 14 days in a controlled environment chamber. Leaf tissues were harvested at various time points for determination of electrolyte leakage, proline, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Significant differences between M-202 and IR50 were detected in electrolyte leakage, proline, and ascorbic acid starting at 7 days with IR50 exhibiting higher levels of these indicators. Most IR50 seedlings were dead at 14 days. A set of fifty rice accessions including M-202 and IR50 was evaluated at 10 days of cold treatment to examine the correlation of visual ratings with the physiological indices. Visual ratings were most highly correlated with electrolyte leakage and least correlated with proline content. Based on visual ratings and the physiological indices, we identified several cultivars that outperformed M-202 in cold tolerance while IR50 had the lowest tolerance of the cultivars tested.

Keywords

Oryza sativa Rice Seedling Cold tolerance Electrolyte leakage Antioxidants Lipid peroxidation Proline 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by USDA Agricultural Research Service CRIS Project 5306-21000-017-00D. The authors gratefully acknowledge the technical support of P. Colowit, E. Easlon, H. Mak, and C. Takachi. Thanks to K. McKenzie and V. Andaya for comments on improving this manuscript.

References

  1. Andaya VC, Mackill DJ (2003a) Mapping of QTLs associated with cold tolerance during the vegetative stage in rice. J Exp Bot 54:2579–2585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andaya VC, Mackill DJ (2003b) QTLs conferring cold tolerance at the booting stage of rice using recombinant inbred lines from a japonica×indica cross. Theor Appl Genet 106:1084–1090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andaya VC, Tai TH (2006) Fine mapping of the qCTS12 locus, a major QTL for seedling cold tolerance in rice. Theor Appl Genet 113:467–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andaya VC, Tai TH (2007) Fine mapping of the qCTS4 locus associated with seedling cold tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Mol Breed 20:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baruah AR, Ishigo-Oka N, Adachi M, Oguma Y, Tokizono Y, Onishi K, Sano Y (2009) Cold tolerance at the early growth stage in wild and cultivated rice. Euphytica 165:459–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil 39:205–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertin P, Kinet JM, Bouharmont J (1996) Evaluation of chilling sensitivity in different rice varieties, Relationship between screening procedures applied during germination and vegetative growth. Euphytica 89:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blum A, Ebercon A (1981) Cell membrane stability as a measure of drought and heat tolerance in wheat. Crop Sci 21:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fujino K, Sekiguchi H, Sato T, Kiuchi H, Nonoue Y, Takeuchi Y, Ando T, Line SY, Yano M (2004) Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling low-temperature germinability in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor Appl Genet 108:794–799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Glaszmann JC, Kaw RN, Khush GS (1990) Genetic divergence among cold tolerant rices (Oryza sativa L.). Euphytica 45:95–104Google Scholar
  11. Griffith OW (1980) Determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide using glutathione reductase and 2-vinylpyridine. Anal Biochem 106:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guo Z, Tan H, Zhu Z, Lu S, Zhou B (2005) Effect of intermediates on ascorbic acid and oxalate biosynthesis of rice and in relation to stress resistance. Plant Physiol Biochem 43:955–962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Guo Z, Ou W, Lu S, Zhong Q (2006) Differential responses of antioxidative system to chilling and drought in four rice cultivars differing in sensitivity. Plant Physiol Biochem 44:828–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Han L, Qiao Y, Cao G, Zhang Y, An Y, Ye J, Koh H (2004) QTLs analysis of cold tolerance during early growth period for rice. Rice Sci 11:245–250Google Scholar
  15. Hodges DM, DeLong JM, Forney CF, Prange RK (1999) Improving the thiobarbituric acid-reactive-substances assay for estimating lipid peroxidation in plant tissues containing anthocyanin and other interfering compounds. Planta 207:604–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang M, Guo Z (2005) Responses of antioxidative system to chilling stress in two rice cultivars differing in sensitivity. Biologia Plantarum 49:81–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jiang L, Xun M, Wang J, Wan J (2008) QTL analysis of cold tolerance at seedling stage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using recombinant inbred lines. J Cereal Sci 48:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaneda C, Beachell HM (1974) Response of indicajaponica rice hybrids to low temperatures. SABRAO J 6:17–32Google Scholar
  19. Kwak TS, Vergara BS, Nanda JS, Coffman WR (1984) Inheritance of seedling cold tolerance in rice. SABRAO J 16:83–86Google Scholar
  20. Lee TM (2007) Polyamine regulation of growth and chilling tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots cultured in vitro. Plant Sci 122:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lee T, Lur H, Chu C (1993) Role of abscisic acid in chilling tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. I. Endogenous abscisic acid levels. Plant Cell Environ 16:481–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lee TM, Lur HS, Chu C (1995) Abscisic acid and putrescine accumulation in chilling-tolerant rice cultivars. Crop Sci 35:502–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li X, Cao K, Wang C, Sun Z, Yan L (2010) Variation of photosynthetic tolerance of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) to chilling temperature in the light. Afr J Biotechnol 9:1325–1337Google Scholar
  24. Lou Q, Chen L, Sun Z, Xing Y, Li J, Xu X, Mei H, Luo L (2007) A major QTL associated with cold tolerance at seedling stage in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Euphytica 158:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mackill DJ, Lei X (1997) Genetic variation for traits related to temperate adaptation of rice cultivars. Crop Sci 37:1340–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morsy MR, Almutairi AM, Gibbons YunSJ, de los Reyes BG (2005) The OsLti6 genes encoding low-molecular-weight membrane proteins are differentially expressed in rice cultivars with contrasting sensitivity to low temperature. Gene 344:171–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Morsy MR, Jouve L, Hausman J, Hoffman L, McD. Stewart J (2007) Alteration of oxidative and carbohydrate metabolism under abiotic stress in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes contrasting in chilling tolerance. J Plant Physiol 164:157–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nagamine T (1991) Genic control of tolerance to chilling injury at seedling stage in rice, Oryza sativa L. Japan J Breed 41:35–40Google Scholar
  29. RI IR (1988) Standard evaluation system for rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  30. Takesawa T, Ito M, Kanzaki H, Kameya N, Nakamura I (2002) Over-expression of glutathione S-transferase in transgenic rice enhances germination and growth at low temperature. Mol Breeding 9:93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Xu JL, Lafitte HR, Gao YM, Fu BY, Torres R, Li ZK (2005) QTLs for drought escape and tolerance identified in a set of random introgression lines of rice. Theor Appl Genet 111:1642–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhang Z, Su L, Li W, Chen W, Zhu Y (2005) A major QTL conferring cold tolerance at the early seedling stage using recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Sci 168:527–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA-ARS Crops Pathology and Genetics Research Unit, Department of Plant Sciences—Mail Stop 1University of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations