Euphytica

, Volume 179, Issue 1, pp 19–32

Rust-proofing wheat for a changing climate

  • Sukumar Chakraborty
  • Jo Luck
  • Grant Hollaway
  • Glenn Fitzgerald
  • Neil White
Article

Abstract

This paper offers projections of potential effects of climate change on rusts of wheat and how we should factor in a changing climate when planning for the future management of these diseases. Even though the rusts of wheat have been extensively studied internationally, there is a paucity of information on the likely effects of a changing climate on the rusts and their influence on wheat production. Due to the lack of published empirical research we relied on the few published studies of other plant diseases, our own unpublished work and relevant information from the vast literature on rusts of wheat to prepare this overview. Three broad areas of potential risks from a changing climate were described: increased loss from wheat rusts, new rust pathotypes evolving faster and the reduced effectiveness of rust resistances. Increased biomass of wheat crops grown in the presence of elevated CO2 concentrations and higher temperatures will increase the leaf area available for attack by the pathogen leading to increased inoculum production. If changed weather conditions were to accelerate the life cycle of a pathogen, the increased inoculum can lead to severe rust epidemics in many environments. Likewise should the effects of climate change result in more conducive conditions for rust development there will also be a corresponding increase in the rate of evolution of new pathotypes which could increase the rate of appearance of new virulences. The effectiveness of some rust resistance genes is influenced by temperature and crop development stage. Climate change may directly or indirectly influence the effectiveness of some resistance genes but this can not be ascertained due to a complete lack of knowledge. Since disease resistance breeding is a long term strategy it is important to determine if any of the important genes may become less effective due to climate change. Studies must be made to acquire new information on the rust disease triangle to increase the adaptive capacity of wheat under climate change. Leadership within the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI) is needed to broker research on rust evolution and the durability of resistance under climate change.

Keywords

Wheat rust Evolution of virulence Elevated CO2 Climate change Epidemiology Rust resistance Borlaug global rust initiative 

References

  1. Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2005) What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytol 165:351–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akin DE, Kimball BA, Windham WR, Pinter PJ, Wall GW, Garcia RL, LaMorte RL, Morrison WH (1995) Effect of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) on forage quality of wheat. Anim Feed Sci Technol 53:29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bariana HS, Brown GN, Bansal UK, Miah H, Standen GE, Lu M (2007) Breeding triple rust resistant wheat cultivars for Australia using conventional and marker-assisted selection technologies. Aust J Agric Res 58:576–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergot M, Cloppet E, Rarnaudw VP, De Que ZM, Benoi TM, Ai S, De Sprez-Loustau M (2004) Simulation of potential range expansion of oak disease caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi under climate change. Glob Change Biol 10:1539–1552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boland G, Melzer M, Hopkin A, Higgins V, Nassuth A (2004) Climate change and plant diseases in Ontario. Can J Plant Pathol 26:335–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolton MD, Kolmer JA, Garvin DF (2008) Wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. Mol Plant Pathol 9:563–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Braga MR, Aidar MPM, Marabes MA, de Godoy RL (2006) Effects of elevated CO2 on the phytoalexin production of two soybean cultivars differing in the resistance to stem canker disease. Environ Exp Bot 58:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braun H-J, Rajaram S, van Ginkel M (1996) CIMMYT’s approach to breeding for wide adaptation. Euphytica 92:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chakraborty S, Datta S (2003) How will plant pathogens adapt to host plant resistance at elevated CO2 under a changing climate? New Phytol 159:733–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chakraborty S, Newton A (2011) Climate change, plant diseases and food security, an overview. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02411.x Google Scholar
  11. Chakraborty S, Pangga IB, Lupton J, Hart L, Room PM, Yates D (2000) Production and dispersal of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides spores on Stylosanthes scabra under elevated CO2. Environ Pollut 108:381–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chakraborty S, Murray G, White N (2002) Impact of climate change on important plant diseases in Australia. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. RIRDC Publication No W02/010, RIRDC Project No CST-4A. http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/AFT/02-010.pdf
  13. Chakraborty S, Luck J, Hollaway G, Freeman A, Norton R, Garrett KA, Percy K, Hopkins A, Davis C, Karnosky DF (2008) Impacts of global change on diseases of agricultural crops and forest trees. CAB Rev Perspect Agric Veterinary Sci Nutr Nat Resour 3:1–15Google Scholar
  14. Chen XM (2005) Epidemiology and control of stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) on wheat. Can J Plant Pathol 27:314–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clifford BC, Harris RG (1981) Controlled environment studies of the epidemic potential of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici on wheat in Britain. Trans Br Mycol Soc 77:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coakley SM (1979) Climate variability in the Pacific Northwest and its effect on stripe rust disease of winter wheat. Clim Change 2:33–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. CSIRO (1996) Climate change scenarios for the Australian region. http://www.dar.csiro.au/publications/scenarios.htm. November 1996
  18. Datta D, Nayar SK, Prashar M, Bhardwaj SC (2009) Inheritance of temperature-sensitive leaf rust resistance and adult plant stripe rust resistance in common wheat cultivar PBW343. Euphytica 166:277–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dennis JI (1987) Effect of high temperatures on survival and development of Puccinia striiformis on wheat. Trans Br Mycol Soc 88:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duveiller E, Singh RP, Nicol JM (2007) The challenges of maintaining wheat productivity: pests, diseases, and potential epidemics. Euphytica 157:417–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eastburn DM, Degennaro MM, Delucia EH, Dermody O, McElrone A (2010) Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone alter soybean diseases at SoyFACE. Glob Change Biol 16:320–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ellis JG, Mago R, Kota R, Dodds PN, McFadden H, Lawrence G, Spielmeyer W, Lagudah E (2007) Wheat rust resistance research at CSIRO. Austr J Agric Res 58:507–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Evans N, Baierl A, Semenov MA, Gladders P, Fitt BDL (2008) Range and severity of a plant disease increased by global warming. J R Soc Int 5:525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eversmeyer MG, Kramer CL (2000) Epidemiology of wheat leaf and stem rust in the central great plains of the USA. Annu Rev Phytopathol 38:491–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ghini R, Hamada E, Gonçalves RRV, Gasparotto L, Pereira JCR (2008) Risk analysis of climate change on black sigatoka in Brazil. J Plant Pathol 90:S2.105Google Scholar
  26. Gregory PJ, Johnson SN, Newton AC, Ingram JSI (2009) Integrating pests and pathogens into the climate change/food security debate. J Exp Bot 60:2827–2838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gruber BR, Davies LRR, Kruger EL, McManus PS (2009) Effects of copper-based fungicides on foliar gas exchange in tart cherry. Plant Dis 93:512–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hannukkala AO, Kaukoranta T, Lehtinen A, Rahkonen A (2007) Late-blight epidemics on potato in Finland, 1933–2002; increased and earlier occurrence of epidemics associated with climate change and lack of rotation. Plant Pathol 56:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hassan IA, Bell JNB, Marshall FM (2008) Effects of ozone-protectant chemicals on physiology and growth of Egyptian clover grown in open-top chambers and at a rural site in Egypt. J Plant Pathol 90:S2.105Google Scholar
  30. Hibberd JM, Whitbread R, Farrar JF (1996a) Effect of elevated concentrations of CO2 on infection of barley by Erysiphe graminis. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 48:37–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hibberd JM, Whitbread R, Farrar JF (1996b) Effect of 700 μmol mol−1 CO2 and infection with powdery mildew on the growth and carbon partitioning of barley. New Phytol 134:309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Högy P, Wieser H, Köhler P, Schwadorf K, Breuer J, Franzaring J, Muntifering R, Fangmeier A (2009) Effects of elevated CO2 on grain yield and quality of wheat: results from a 3-year free-air CO2 enrichment experiment. Plant Biol 11:60–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Howden M, Jones RN (2004) Risk assessment of climate change impacts on Australia’s wheat industry. In: Fischer T et al (eds) New directions for a diverse planet. Proceedings of the 4th international crop science congress, Brisbane, Australia, 26 Sept–1 Oct. The Regional Institute, Gosford, NSW, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  34. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) Summary for policymakers. In: Solomon S et al. (eds) Climate change: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  35. Jin Y, Szabo LJ, Carson M (2010) Century-old mystery of Puccinia striiformis life history solved with the identification of Berberis as an alternate host. Phytopathology 100:432–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Karnosky DF, Percy KE, Xiang B, Callan B, Noormets A, Mankovska B, Hopkin A, Sober J, Jones W, Dickson RE, Isebrands JG (2002) Interacting elevated CO2 and trophospheric O3 predisposes aspen (Poplus tremuloides Michx.) to infection by rust (Melampsora medusae f. sp. tremuloidae). Glob Change Biol 8:329–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kimball BA, Pinter PJ Jr, Garcia RL, LaMorte RL, Wall GW, Hunsaker DJ, Wechsung G, Wechsung F, Kartschall Th (1995) Productivity and water use of wheat under free-air CO2 enrichment. Glob Change Biol 1:429–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kimball BA, Morris CF, Pinter PJ Jr, Wall GW, Hunsaker DJ, Adamsen FJ, LaMorte L, Leavitt SW, Thompson L, Matthias AD, Brooks J (2000) Elevated CO2, drought and soil nitrogen effects on wheat grain quality. New Phytol 150:295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kobayashi T, Ishiguro K, Nakajima T, Kim HY, Okada M, Kobayashi K (2006) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on the infection of rice blast and sheath blight. Phytopathology 96:425–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kolmer JA (1996) Genetics of resistance to wheat leaf rust. Annu Rev Phytopathol 34:43–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lake J, Wade R (2009) Plant–pathogen interactions and elevated CO2: morphological changes in favour of pathogens. J Exp Bot 60:3123–3131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Leach JE, Vera Cruz CM, Bai J, Leung H (2001) Pathogen fitness penalty as a predictor of durability of disease resistance genes. Annu Rev Phytopathol 39:187–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernard SM, Markelz RJC, Ort DR, Placella SA, Rogers A, Smith MD, Sudderth EA, Weston DJ, Wullschleger SD, Yuan S (2009) Gene expression profiling: opening the black box of plant ecosystem responses to global change. Glob Change Biol 15:1201–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Leonard KJ, Czochor RJ (1980) Theory of genetic interactions among populations of plants and their pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 18:237–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leonard KJ, Szabo LJ (2005) Stem rust of small grains and grasses caused by Puccinia graminis. Mol Plant Pathol 6:99–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Line RF (2002) Stripe rust of wheat and barley in North America: a retrospective historical review. Annu Rev Phytopathol 40:75–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Luig NH (1979) Mutation studies in Puccinia graminis tritici. In: Ramanujam S (ed) Proceedings of the 5th international wheat genetics symposium. Indian Society of Genetics and plant Breeding, IARI, New Delhi, India, pp 533–539Google Scholar
  48. Mahmuti M, West JS, Watts J, Gladders P, Fitt BDL (2009) Controlling crop disease contributes to both food security and climate change mitigation. Earthscan 2009:1473–5903Google Scholar
  49. Markell SG, Milus EA (2008) Emergence of a novel population of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Eastern United States. Phytopathology 98:632–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Matros A, Amme S, Kettig B, Buck-Sorlin GH, Sonnewald U, Mock HP (2006) Growth at elevated CO2 concentrations leads to modified profiles of secondary metabolites in tobacco cv. SamsunNN and to increased resistance against infection with potato virus Y. Plant Cell Environ 29:126–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Maywald GF, Sutherst RW, Zalucki M (2000) DYMEX. Exploring population dynamics. CSIRO entomology http://www.ento.csiro.au/research/pestmgmt/dymex/dymexfr.htm
  52. McElrone AJ, Reid CD, Hoye KA, Hart E, Jackson RB (2005) Elevated CO2 reduces disease incidence and severity of a red maple fungal pathogen via changes in host physiology and leaf chemistry. Glob Change Biol 11:1828–1836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McIntosh RA, Brown GN (1997) Anticipatory breeding for resistance to rust diseases in wheat. Annu Rev Phytopathol 35:311–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Melloy P, Hollaway G, Luck J, Norton R, Aitken E, Chakraborty S (2010) Production and fitness of Fusarium pseudograminearum inoculum at elevated CO2 in FACE. Glob Change Biol 16:3363–3373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Milus EA, Seyran E, McNew R (2006) Aggressiveness of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates in south-central United States. Plant Dis 90:847–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Milus EA, Kristensen K, Hovmøller MS (2009) Evidence for increased aggressiveness in a recent widespread strain of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici causing stripe rust of wheat. Phytopathology 99:89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Miyazaki S, Fredricksen M, Hollis KC, Poroyko V, Shepley D, Galbraith DW, Long SP, Bohnert HJ (2004) Transcript expression profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under controlled conditions and open-air elevated concentrations of CO2 and of O3. Field Crops Res 90:47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mollah M, Norton R R, Huzzey J (2009) Australian grains free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (AGFACE) facility: design and performance. Crop Pasture Sci 60:697–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Norton R, Fitzgerald G, Korte C (2008) The effect of elevated carbon dioxide on the growth and yield of wheat in the Australian Grains Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (AGFACE) experiment. In: Unkovich MJ (ed) Proceedings of the 14th Australian society of Agron conference. Austr Soc Agron, Adelaide, Horsham, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  60. O’Leary GJ, Connor DJ (1996) A simulation model of the wheat crop in response to water and nitrogen supply: I. Model construction. Agric Syst 52:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Leary AL, Jones AL (1987) Factors influencing the uptake of fenarimol and flusilazol by apple leaves. Phytopathology 77:1564–1568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ortiz R, Sayre KD, Govaerts B, Gupta R, Subbarao GV, Ban T, Hodson D, Dixon JM, Iván Ortiz-Monasterio J, Reynolds M (2008) Climate change: can wheat beat the heat? Agric Ecosyst Environ 126:46–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Park RF (2007) Stem rust of wheat in Australia. Austr J Agric Res 58:558–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Park RF, Gavin JA, Rees RG (1992) Effects of temperature on the response of some Australian wheat cultivars to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Mycol Res 96:166–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pfleeger TG, da Luz MA, Mundt CC (1999) Lack of a synergistic interaction between ozone and wheat leaf rust in wheat swards. Environ Exper Bot 41:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pinter PJ, Kimball BA, Wall GW, LaMorte RL, Hunsaker DJ, Adamsen FJ, Frumau KFA, Vugts HF, Hendrey GR, Lewin KF, Nagy J, Johnson HB, Wechsung F, Leavitt SW, Thompson TL, Matthias AD, Brooks TJ (2000) Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE): blower effects on wheat canopy microclimate and plant development. Agric For Met 103:319–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pittock B, Arthington A, Booth T, Cowell P, Hennesy K, Howden M, Hughes L, Jones R, Lake S, Lyne V, McMichael T, Mullet T, Nicholls N, Torok S, Woodruff R (2003) Climate change: an Australian guide to the science and potential impacts. Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra, p 239Google Scholar
  68. Pretorius ZA, Singh RP, Wagoire WW, Payne TS (2000) Detection of virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr31 in Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Uganda. Plant Dis 84:203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Roelfs AP (1988) Genetic control of phenotypes in wheat stem rust. Annu Rev Phytopathol 26:351–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rogers GS, Gras PW, Batey IL, Milham PJ, Payne L, Conroy JP (1998) The influence of atmospheric CO2 concentration on the protein, starch and mixing properties of wheat flour. Austr J Plant Physiol 25:387–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Salinari F, Giosuè S, Tubiello FN, Rettori A, Rossi V, Spanna F, Rosenzweig C, Gullino ML (2007) Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) epidemics on grapevine under climate change. Glob Change Biol 12:1299–1307Google Scholar
  72. Schafer JF, Roelfs AP (1985) Estimated relation between numbers of urediniospores of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and rates of occurrence of virulence. Phytopathology 75:749–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Scherm H, Yang XB (1995) Interannual variations in wheat rust development in China and the United States in relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Phytopathology 85:970–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Scherm H, Yang XB (1998) Atmospheric teleconnection patterns associated with wheat stripe rust disease in North China. Intl J Biomet 42:28–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shaw MW, Bearchell SJ, Fitt BDL, Fraaije BA (2008) Long-term relationships between environment and abundance in wheat of Phaeosphaeria nodorum and Mycosphaerella graminicola. New Phytol 177:229–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, Rajaram S (2000a) Achieving near-immunity to leaf and stripe rusts in wheat by combining slow rusting resistance genes. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 35:133–139Google Scholar
  77. Singh RP, Nelson JC, Sorrells ME (2000b) Mapping Yr28 and other genes for resistance to stripe rust in wheat. Crop Sci 40:1148–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, Roelfs AP (2002) The wheat rusts. In: Curtis BC, Rajaram S, Macpherson HG (eds) Bread wheat. FAO plant production and protection series no. 30, Rome, Italy http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4011e/y4011e0g.htm#bm16
  79. Sinha PG, Kapoor R, Uprety DC, Bhatnagar AK (2009) Impact of elevated CO2 concentration on ultrastructure of pericarp and composition of grain in three Triticum species of different ploidy levels. Environ Exper Bot 66:451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Steele KA, Wellings CR, Dickinson MJ (2001) Support for a stepwise mutation model for pathogen evolution in Australasian Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici by use of molecular markers. Plant Pathol 50:174–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stern N (2007) The economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  82. Tiedemann A, Firsching KH (2000) Interactive effects of elevated ozone and carbon dioxide on growth and yield of leaf rust-infected versus non-infected wheat. Environ Pollut 108:357–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wanyera R, Kinyua MG, Jin Y, Singh RP (2006) The spread of stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, with virulence on Sr31 in wheat in Eastern Africa. Plant Dis 90:113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wellings CR (2007) Puccinia striiformis in Australia: a review of the incursion, evolution, and adaptation of stripe rust in the period 1979–2006. Austr J Agric Res 58:567–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wiik L, Ewaldz T (2009) Impact of temperature and precipitation on yield and plant diseases of winter wheat in southern Sweden 1983–2007. Crop Prot 28:952–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wittwer SH (1995) Food, climate and carbon dioxide—the global environment and world food production. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USAGoogle Scholar
  87. Woods A, Coates DK, Hamann A (2005) Is an unprecedented Dothistroma needle blight epidemic related to climate change? Bioscience 55:761–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wright RG, Lennard JH (1980) Origin of a new race of Puccinia striiformis. Trans Br Mycol Soc 74:283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yirgou D, Caldwell R (1968) Stomatal penetration of wheat seedlings by stem and leaf rusts in relation to effects of carbon dioxide, light, and stomatal aperture. Phytopathology 58:500–507Google Scholar
  90. Ziska LH (2008) Three-year field evaluation of early and late 20th century spring wheat cultivars to projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Field Crops Res 108:54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zou X, Shen QJ, Neuman D (2007) An ABA inducible WRKY gene integrates responses of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) to elevated CO2 and abiotic stresses. Plant Sci 172:997–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukumar Chakraborty
    • 1
    • 5
  • Jo Luck
    • 2
    • 5
  • Grant Hollaway
    • 3
  • Glenn Fitzgerald
    • 4
  • Neil White
    • 6
  1. 1.CSIRO Plant IndustrySt LuciaAustralia
  2. 2.Biosciences Research DivisionDepartment of Primary Industries, KnoxfieldKnoxfieldAustralia
  3. 3.Biosciences Research DivisionDepartment of Primary Industries, VictoriaHorshamAustralia
  4. 4.Future Farming Systems Research DivisionDepartment of Primary Industries, VictoriaHorshamAustralia
  5. 5.Cooperative Research Centre for National Plant Biosecurity, Innovation CentreUniversity of CanberraBruceAustralia
  6. 6.Department of Employment, Economic Development and InnovationAgri-Science QueenslandToowoombaAustralia

Personalised recommendations