Advertisement

Euphytica

, Volume 179, Issue 1, pp 175–186 | Cite as

Race non-specific resistance to rust diseases in CIMMYT spring wheats

  • R. P. SinghEmail author
  • J. Huerta-Espino
  • S. Bhavani
  • S. A. Herrera-Foessel
  • D. Singh
  • P. K. Singh
  • G. Velu
  • R. E. Mason
  • Y. Jin
  • P. Njau
  • J. Crossa
Article

Abstract

Rust diseases continue to cause significant losses to wheat production worldwide. Although the life of effective race-specific resistance genes can be prolonged by using gene combinations, an alternative approach is to deploy varieties that posses adult plant resistance (APR) based on combinations of minor, slow rusting genes. When present alone, APR genes do not confer adequate resistance especially under high disease pressure; however, combinations of 4–5 such genes usually result in “near-immunity” or a high level of resistance. Although high diversity for APR occurs for all three rusts in improved germplasm, relatively few genes are characterized in detail. Breeding for APR to leaf rust and stripe rust in CIMMYT spring wheats was initiated in the early 1970s by crossing slow rusting parents that lacked effective race-specific resistance genes to prevalent pathogen populations and selecting plants in segregating populations under high disease pressure in field nurseries. Consequently most of the wheat germplasm distributed worldwide now possesses near-immunity or adequate levels of resistance. Some semidwarf wheats such as Kingbird, Pavon 76, Kiritati and Parula show high levels of APR to stem rust race Ug99 and its derivatives based on the Sr2-complex, or a combination of Sr2 with other uncharacterized slow rusting genes. These parents are being utilized in our crossing program and a Mexico-Kenya shuttle breeding scheme is used for selecting resistance to Ug99. High frequencies of lines with near-immunity to moderate levels of resistance are now emerging from these activities. After further yield trials and quality assessments these lines will be distributed internationally through the CIMMYT nursery system.

Keywords

Triticum aestivum Leaf rust Stripe rust Stem rust Puccinia triticina Puccinia striiformis Puccinia graminis tritici Ug99 Shuttle breeding Durable resistance 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge financial resources from the Durable Rust Resistant Wheat Project led by Cornell University and supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ICAR-India; USDA-ARS and USAID, USA; GRDC Australia; Agrovegetal-Spain; the Northwestern Mexican Farmer Association (Patronato) and CONFUPRO, Mexico; SDC, Switzerland; and our institutions. We also thank National Program collaborators for growing, and providing data from, the 4th EBWYT.

References

  1. Borlaug NE (1972) A cereal breeder and ex-forester’s evaluation of the progress and problems involved in breeding rust resistant forest trees: “moderator’s summary”. Biology of rust resistance in forest trees. In: Proceedings of a NATO-IUFRO Advanced Study Institute, 17–24 Aug 1969. USDA Forest Service Misc. Publication 1221, pp 615–642Google Scholar
  2. Caldwell RM (1968) Breeding for general and/or specific plant disease resistance. In: Findlay KW, Shepherd KW (eds) Proceedings of the 3rd international wheat genetics symposium. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australia, pp 263–272Google Scholar
  3. Dyck PL (1987) The association of a gene for leaf rust resistance with the chromosome 7D suppressor of stem rust resistance in common wheat. Genome 29:467–469Google Scholar
  4. Dyck PL, Kerber ER, Aung T (1994) An interchromosomal reciprocal translocation in wheat involving leaf rust resistance gene Lr34. Genome 37:556–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. German SE, Kolmer JA (1992) Effect of gene Lr34 in the enhancement of resistance to leaf rust of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 84:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Herrera-Foessel SA, Lagudah ES, Huerta-Espino J, Hayden MJ, Bariana HS, Singh D, Singh RP (2010) New slow-rusting leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr67 and Yr46 in wheat are pleiotropic or closely linked. Theor Appl Genet. doi: 10.1007/s00122-010-1439-x
  7. Hiebert CW, Thomas JB, McCallum BD, Humphreys DG, DePauw RM, Hayden MJ, Mago R, Schnippenkoetter W, Spielmeyer W (2010) An introgression on wheat chromosome 4DL in RL6077 (Thatcher*6/PI 250413) confers adult plant resistance to stripe rust and leaf rust (Lr67). Theor Appl Genet 121:1083–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jin Y, Singh RP, Ward RW, Wanyera R, Kinyua M, Njau P, Fetch T, Pretorius ZA, Yahyaoui A (2007) Characterization of seedling infection types and adult plant infection responses of monogenic Sr gene lines to race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Plant Dis 91:1096–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Johnson R (1988) Durable resistance to yellow (stripe) rust in wheat and its implications in plant breeding. In: Simmonds NW, Rajaram S (eds) Breeding strategies for resistance to the rust of wheat. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., pp 63–75Google Scholar
  10. Knott DR (1982) Multigenic inheritance of stem rust resistance in wheat. Crop Sci 22:393–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Knott DR (1988) Using polygenic resistance to breed for stem rust resistance in wheat. In: Simmonds NW, Rajaram S (eds) Breeding strategies for resistance to the rust of wheat. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., pp 39–47Google Scholar
  12. Kolmer JA, Singh RP, Garvin DF, Viccars L, William HM, Huerta-Espino J, Ogbonnaya FC, Raman H, Orford S, Bariana HS, Lagudah ES (2008) Analysis of the Lr34/Yr18 rust resistance region in wheat germplasm. Crop Sci 48:1841–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Krattinger SG, Lagudah ES, Spielmeyer W, Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, McFadden H, Bossolini E, Selter LL, Keller B (2009) A putative ABC transporter confers durable resistance to multiple fungal pathogens in wheat. Science 323:1360–1363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lillemo M, Asalf B, Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, Chen XM, He ZH, Bjørnstad Å (2008) The adult plant rust resistance loci Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29 are important determinants of partial resistance to powdery mildew in bread wheat line Saar. Theor Appl Genet 116:1155–1166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marasas CN, Smale M, Singh RP (2003) The economic impact of productivity maintenance research: breeding for leaf rust resistance in modern wheat. Agric Econ 29:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McIntosh RA (1988) The role of specific genes in breeding for durable stem rust resistance in wheat and triticale. In: Simmonds NW, Rajaram S (eds) Breeding strategies for resistance to the rusts of wheat. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., pp 1–9Google Scholar
  17. McIntosh RA (1992) Close genetic linkage of genes conferring adult-plant resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust in wheat. Plant Pathol 41:523–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McIntosh RA, Wellings CR, Park RF (1995) Wheat rusts: an atlas of resistance genes. CSIRO Publications, Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  19. Navabi A, Singh RP, Tewari JP, Briggs KG (2003) Genetic analysis of adult-plant resistance to leaf rust in five spring wheat genotypes. Plant Dis 87:1522–1529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Navabi A, Singh RP, Tewari JP, Briggs KG (2004) Inheritance of high levels of adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in five spring wheat genotypes. Crop Sci 44:1156–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Niederhauser JS, Cervantes J, Servin L (1954) Late blight in Mexico and its implications. Phytopathology 44:406–408Google Scholar
  22. Njau PN, Jin Y, Huerta-Espino J, Keller B, Singh RP (2010) Identification and evaluation of sources of resistance to stem rust race Ug99 in wheat. Plant Dis 94:413–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rajaram S, Singh RP, Torres E (1988) Current CIMMYT approaches in breeding wheat for rust resistance. In: Simmonds NW, Rajaram S (eds) Breeding strategies for resistance to the rust of wheat. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F., pp 101–118Google Scholar
  24. Singh RP (1992a) Genetic association of leaf rust resistance gene Lr34 with adult plant resistance to stripe rust in bread wheat. Phytopathology 82:835–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Singh RP (1992b) Association between gene Lr34 for leaf rust resistance and leaf tip necrosis in wheat. Crop Sci 32:874–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J (1995) Inheritance of seedling and adult plant resistance to leaf rust in wheat cultivars Ciano 79 and Papago 86. Plant Dis 79:35–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Singh RP, McIntosh RA (1986) Genetics of resistance to Puccinia graminis tritici and Puccinia recondita tritici in Kenya plume wheat. Euphytica 35:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Singh RP, McIntosh RA (1987) Genetics of resistance to Puccinia graminis tritici in ‘Chris’ and ‘W3746’ wheats. Theor Appl Genet 73:846–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singh RP, Rajaram S (1992) Genetics of adult-plant resistance to leaf rust in ‘Frontana’ and three CIMMYT wheats. Genome 35:24–31Google Scholar
  30. Singh RP, Trethowan R (2007) Breeding spring bread wheat for irrigated and rainfed production systems of developing world. In: Kang M, Priyadarshan PM (eds) Breeding major food staples. Blackwell, Iowa, USA, pp 109–140Google Scholar
  31. Singh RP, Kazi-Mujeeb A, Huerta-Espino J (1998) Lr46: a gene conferring slow rusting resistance to leaf rust in wheat. Phytopathology 88:890–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, Rajaram S (2000) Achieving near-immunity to leaf and stripe rusts in wheat by combining slow rusting resistance genes. Acta Phytopathlogica Hungarica 35:133–139Google Scholar
  33. Singh RP, William HM, Huerta-Espino J, Crosby M (2003) Identification and mapping of gene Yr31 for resistance to stripe rust in Triticum aestivum cultivar pastor, vol 1. In: Pogna NE, Romano M, Pogna EA, Galterio G (eds) Proceedings of the 10th International wheat genetics symposium. Instituto Sperimentale per la Cerealicoltura, Rome, Italy, pp 411–413Google Scholar
  34. Spielmeyer W, McIntosh RA, Kolmer J, Lagudah ES (2005) Powdery mildew resistance and Lr34/Yr18 genes for durable resistance to leaf and stripe rust cosegregate at a locus on the short arm of chromosome 7D of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 111:731–735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Van der Plank JE (1963) Plant diseases: epidemics and control. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. William M, Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, Ortiz Islas S, Hoisington D (2003) Molecular marker mapping of leaf rust resistance gene Lr46 and its association with stripe rust resistance gene Yr29 in wheat. Phytopathology 93:153–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang JX, Singh RP, Kolmer JA, Huerta-Espino J, Jin Y, Anderson JA (2008) Inheritance of leaf rust resistance in CIMMYT wheat Weebill 1. Crop Sci 48:1037–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. P. Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Huerta-Espino
    • 2
  • S. Bhavani
    • 1
  • S. A. Herrera-Foessel
    • 1
  • D. Singh
    • 3
  • P. K. Singh
    • 1
  • G. Velu
    • 1
  • R. E. Mason
    • 1
  • Y. Jin
    • 4
  • P. Njau
    • 5
  • J. Crossa
    • 1
  1. 1.CIMMYTMexicoMexico
  2. 2.INIFAP-CEVAMEXChapingoMexico
  3. 3.CIMMYTNairobiKenya
  4. 4.Cereal Disease LaboratoryUSDA-ARSSt. PaulUSA
  5. 5.Njoro Plant Breeding Research Center-Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI-NPBRC)P.O. NjoroKenya

Personalised recommendations