Advertisement

Euphytica

, Volume 167, Issue 1, pp 23–30 | Cite as

In vitro culture of immature seed for rapid generation advancement in tomato

  • Surya P. BhattaraiEmail author
  • Robert C. de la Pena
  • David J. Midmore
  • Kadirvel Palchamy
Article

Abstract

The importance of fast-trackt generation advancement in developing superior germplasm has been recognized in breeding of many crop species. To address this issue in tomato, immature seeds were excised from fruit at different maturity stages and transferred to culture medium. The best culture medium was modified full strength Moorashige–Skoog (MS) salts supplemented with 0.1 mg l−1 IAA, 0.5 mg l−1 IBA, 0.5 mg l−1 GA3 and 2% sucrose. If the excised seeds were able to grow, most showed shoot formation after a week. Seeds extracted as early as 10 days after pollination were successfully cultured provided they were transferred aseptically and without injury. No morphological or physiological changes in regenerated plants and their fruit relative to the parent were detected. Germination from immature seeds of tomato is a simpler alternative to in vitro culture of immature embryos or callus, as it can be undertaken in comparatively less stringent laboratory conditions. Using this approach, five generations can be produced in a year in contrast to a maximum of three generations with conventional methods. This offers an opportunity for rapid generation advancement aimed towards population development when coupled with marker assisted selection in tomato breeding for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance.

Keywords

Embryo culture Tomato, immature fruit Immature seed culture Rapid generation advancement 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Ms. Jean Lin, Mr. Allen Hsu, Dr. Rachael Symonds, and Ms. Julie Chu of AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center for their assistance. We are thankful to Editor Prof Adam J. Lukaszewski for his constructive comments, suggestions and contributions. The research was funded by an Australian Government, DEST, Endeavour Fellowship granted to Dr Surya P. Bhattarai.

References

  1. Ashby E (1937) The determination of size in plants. Proc Linn Soc Lond 149:2Google Scholar
  2. Barbano PP, Topolesky LD (1984) Post fertilization hybrid seed failure in Lycopersicon esculentum × Lycopersicon peruvianum ovules. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 109:95–100Google Scholar
  3. Chen L, Adachi T (1992) Embryo abortion and efficient rescue in interspecific hybrids Lycopersicon esculentum and the peruvianum complex. Jpn J Breed 42:65–77Google Scholar
  4. Cong B, Liu J, Tanksley SD (2002) Natural alleles at a tomato fruit size quantitative trait locus differs by heterochronic regulatory mutations. PNAS 99(21):13606–13611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Demir I, Samit Y (2001) Quality of tomato seed as affected by fruit maturity at harvest and seed extraction method. Gartenbau 66(4):199–202Google Scholar
  6. Demirel F, Seniz V (1997) A research on the utilization possibilities of embryo culture in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.). Acta Hortic (ISHS) 447:237–238. http://www.actahort.org/books/447/447_49.htm
  7. Dias DCFS, Ribeiro FP, Dias LAS, Silva DJH, Vidigal DS (2006) Tomato seed quality in relation to fruit maturation and post harvest storage. Seed Sci Tech 34(3):691–699Google Scholar
  8. Domoradzki M, Korpal W (2005) Seed size dependent germination of selected vegetable. Acta Agrophysica 5(3):607–612Google Scholar
  9. Engle LM, Shanmugasundaram S, Hanson P (2003) Evaluation and utilization of vegetable genetic resources for the tropics. Acta Hortic 623:263–274Google Scholar
  10. Finch-Savage WE, Leubner-Metzger G (2006) Seed dormancy and control of germination. New Phytol 171:501–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hocher V, Sotta B, Maldiney R, Bonnet M, Miginiac E (1992) Changes in indole-3-acetic acid levels during tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seed development. Plant Cell Rep 11(5–6):253–256Google Scholar
  12. Imanishi S, Hiura I (1975) Relationship between fruit weight and seed content on tomato. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 44(1):33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jones JB (2007) Tomato plant culture in the field, glasshouse and home garden, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 337Google Scholar
  14. Luckwill LC (1939) The factors affecting the mean seed weight of tomato fruits. New Phytol 38(3):181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lumpkin H (2005) A comparison of lycopene and other phytochemicals in tomatoes grown under conventional and organic management systems. Technical Bulletin No. 34. AVRDC Publication Number 05–623. Shanhua, Taiwan: AVRDC—The World Vegetable Center: 48Google Scholar
  16. Mallikarjuna N (1999) Ovule and embryo culture to obtain hybrids from interspecific incompatible pollinations in chickpea. Euphytica 110:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mobayen RG (1980) Germination and emergence of citrus and tomato seeds in relation to temperature. J Hortic Sci 55:291–297Google Scholar
  18. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15(3):473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Picken AJF, Stewart K, Klapwijk D et al (1986) Germination and vegetative development. In: Atherton JG, Rudich J (eds) The tomato crop—a scientific basis for improvement. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp 111–131Google Scholar
  20. Pico B, Herraiz J, Ruiz JJ, Nuez F (2002) Widening the genetic basis of virus resistance in tomato. Sci Hortic 94:73–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Polanco MC, Ruiz ML (2001) Factors that affect plant regeneration from in vitro culture of immature seeds in four lentil cultivars. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 66:133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Poysa V (1990) The development of bridge lines for interspecific gene transfer between Lycopersicon esculentum and Lycopersicon peruvianum. Theor Appl Genet 79:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rao RGS, Singh PM, Rai M (2008) Effect of seed maturity and priming on viability and vigour in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Eur J Hortic Sci 73:56–63Google Scholar
  24. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1987) Introduction to biostatistics, 2nd edn. WH Freeman and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Torresan A, Kesteloot J, Castano F, Rodriguez R, Colabelli M (1996) Use of immature seed germination technique as an alternative to in vitro culture of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) embryos. Euphytica 91(1):1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vikrant, Rashid A (2002) Somatic embryogenesis from immature and mature embryos of a minor millet Paspalum scrobiculatum L. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 69:71–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Whittington WJ, Fierlinger P (1972) The genetic control of time to germination in tomato. Ann Bot 36:873–880Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surya P. Bhattarai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert C. de la Pena
    • 2
  • David J. Midmore
    • 1
  • Kadirvel Palchamy
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Plant and Water Science, Faculty of Science Engineering and HealthCQUniversityRockhamptonAustralia
  2. 2.Biotechnology and Molecular Breeding UnitAVRDC-The World Vegetable CentreShanhua, TainanTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations