Advertisement

Euphytica

, Volume 155, Issue 3, pp 337–348 | Cite as

Characterization of resistance of cassava genotypes to bacterial blight by evaluation of leaf and systemic symptoms in relation to yield in different ecozones

  • Kerstin Wydra
  • Agnassim Banito
  • Kossi Esotina Kpémoua
Article

Abstract

Twenty-two improved and local cassava genotypes were evaluated for their bacterial blight symptom types in reaction to infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis under field conditions in the forest, forest savanna transition and wet savanna zones of Togo. High genotype × environment interactions in development of each symptom type were observed. Combining data on environments and genotypes, spot, blight and wilt symptoms were positively correlated. Analysing genotype reactions across environments, indications for independent mechanisms of resistance on leaf and stem level, varying by genotype, were found. Genotypes Main27 with resistance to spot and blight symptoms and TMS4(2)1425 with resistance to wilt symptoms are recommended to breeders to introgress their resistance characteristics. Significant negative correlations were generally observed between blight and wilt symptom development and root yield across ecozones, with blight being more important under lower, and wilt under higher inoculum pressure. Genotypes TMS30572, CVTM4, TMS92/0429 and TMS91/02316 showed low spot, blight and wilt symptoms combined with high root yield across ecozones.

Keywords

Manihot esculenta Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis Togo 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the European Union, INCO-DC programme, Contract Number IC18-CT-1998–0306. We thank the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Station Cotonou, Benin, and the Institut Togolais de Recherche Agronomique, Lomé, Togo, for logistic support in field and laboratory trials.

References

  1. Akparobi SO, Togun AO, Ekanayake IJ (1998) Assessment of cassava genotypes for resistance to cassava mosaic disease, cassava bacterial blight and cassava green mite at a low mid-altitude site in Nigeria. African Crop Sci J 6:385–396Google Scholar
  2. Banito A (2003) Integrated control of cassava bacterial blight in West Africa in relation to ecozones, host plant resistance and cultural practics. PhD Thesis, University of Hannover, Germany. http://www.gartenbau.uni-hannover.de/ipp/ipp/Publikationen/Dissertationen.htmlGoogle Scholar
  3. Banito A, Kpémoua K, Wydra K, Rudolph K (2001) Bacterial blight of cassava in Togo: its importance the virulence of the pathogen and the resistance of genotypes. In: DeBoer S (ed) Plant pathogenic bacteria. Kluwer Academic Press, Netherlandsk, pp 259–264Google Scholar
  4. Boher B, Agbobli CA (1992) La bactériose vasculaire du manioc au Togo: charactérisation du parasite, répartition géographique et sensibilité variétale. Agron Trop 46:131–136Google Scholar
  5. Boher B, Verdier V (1994) Cassava bacterial blight in Africa: the state of knowledge and implications to designing control strategies. African Crop Sci J 2:1–5Google Scholar
  6. Bondar G (1915) Molestia bacteriana da mandioca. Boletim de Agricultura Sao Paulo 16:513–524Google Scholar
  7. Dixon AGO, Nukenine EN (2000) Genotype × environment interaction and optimum resource allocation for yield and yield components of cassava. African Crop Sci J 8:1–10Google Scholar
  8. DMN (2001) Direction de la Météorologie Nationale Togolaise, Division de la Climatologie, Lomé, TogoGoogle Scholar
  9. Dye DB (1962) The inadequacy of the usual determinative tests for the identification of Xanthomonas spp. N Z J Sci 5:393–416Google Scholar
  10. Flood J, Cooper RM, Deshappriya N, Day RC (1995) Resistance of cassava (Manihot esculenta) to Xanthomonas blight in vitro and in planta. Asp Appl Biol 42:277–284Google Scholar
  11. Fokunang CN, Akem CN, Dixon AGO, Ikotun T (2000a) Evaluation of a cassava germplasm collection for reaction to three major diseases and the effect on yield. Genet Resour Crop Evol 47:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fokunang CN, Ikotun T, Dixon AGO, Akem CN (2000b) Field reaction of cassava genotypes to anthracnose, bacterial blight, cassava mosaic disease and their effects on yield. African Crop Sci J 8:179–186Google Scholar
  13. Hahn SK, Terry ER, Leuschner K, Akobundu IO, Okali C, Lal R (1979) Cassava improvement in Africa. Field Crops Res 2:193–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jeger MJ, Viljanen-Rollinson SLH (2001) The use of the area under the disease-progress curve (AUDPC) to assess quantitative disease resistance in crop cultivars. Theor Appl Genet 102:32–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jorge V, Fregene MA, Duque MC, Bonierbale MW, Tohme J, Verdier V (2000) Genetic mapping of resistance to bacterial blight disease in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Theor Appl Genet 101:865–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kpémoua EK, Boher B, Nicole M, Calatayud P, Geiger JP (1996) Cytochemistry of defence responses in cassava infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis. Can J Microbiol 42:1131–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lamouroux M (1979) Notice explicative No. 34. Carte pédologique du Togo au 1/1000000. Bondy, ORSTOM, TogoGoogle Scholar
  18. Lozano JC (1986) Cassava bacterial blight: a manageable disease. Plant Dis 70:1089–1093Google Scholar
  19. Otoo JA, Dixonv AGO, Asiedu R, Okeke JE, Maroya GN, Tougnon K, Okoli OO, Tetteh JP, Hahn SK (1994) Genotype × environment interaction studies with cassava. symposium on tropical root crops in a developing economy. Acta Hortic 380:144–148Google Scholar
  20. Restrepo S, Duque MC, Verdier V (2000a) Characterization of pathotypes among isolates of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in Colombia. Plant Pathol 49:680–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Restrepo S, Duque MC, Verdier V (2000b) Resistance spectrum of selected Manihot esculenta genotypes under field conditions. Field Crops Res 65:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sãnchez G, Restrepo S, Duque MC, Bonierbale M, Verdier V (1999) AFLP assessment of genetic variability in cassava accessions (Manihot esculenta) resistant and susceptible to the cassava bacterial blight (CBB). Genome 42:163–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Scott RA, Milliken GA (1993) A SAS program for analysing augmented randomized complete block designs. Crop Sci 33:865–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shaner G, Finney RE (1977) The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the expression of slow-mildewing resistance in Knox wheat. Phytopathology 67:1051–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vauterin L, Hoste B, Kersters K, Swings GJ (1995) Reclassification of Xanthomonas. Int J Syst Bact 45:472–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wolfinger RD, Federer WT, Cordero-Brana O (1997) Recovering information in augmented designs using SAS PROC GLM and PROC MIXED. Agron J 89:856–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wydra K (2002) The concept of resistance, tolerance and latency in bacterial diseases: examples from cassava and cowpea. ‘New Aspects of Resistance Research on Cultivated Plants’ Bacterial Diseases. Beitr Züchtungsforschung BAZ 8(3):36–43Google Scholar
  28. Wydra K, Rudolph K (1999) Development and implementation of integrated control methods for major diseases of cassava and cowpea in West-Africa. Göttinger Beitr. Land- und Forstwirtschaft in den Tropen und Subtropen 133:174–180Google Scholar
  29. Wydra K, Verdier V (2002) Occurrence of cassava diseases in relation to environmental, agronomic and plant characteristics. Agric Ecosyst Environ 93:211–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wydra K, Fanou A, Sikirou R, Zandjanakou M, Zinsou V, Rudolph K (2001) Integrated control of bacterial diseases of cassava and cowpea in West Africa. In: DeBoer S (ed) Plant pathogenic bacteria. Kluwer Academic Press, Netherlands, pp 280–287Google Scholar
  31. Wydra K, Agbicodo E, Ahohuendo B, Banito A, Cooper RMC, Dixon A, Jorge V, Kemp B, Kpémoua K, Rudolph K, Verdier V, Witt F, Zandjanakou M, Zinsou V (2004a) Integrated control of cassava bacterial blight by (1) combined cultural control measures and (2) host plant resistance adapted to agro-ecological conditions, and (3) improved pathogen detection. Proceedings of the 8th triennial symposium International Society Tropical Root Crops - Africa Branch (ISTRC-AB), November 2001, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp 506–515Google Scholar
  32. Wydra K, Zinsou V, Jorge V, Verdier V (2004b) Identification of pathotypes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in Africa and detection of quantitative trait loci and markers for resistance to bacterial blight. Phytopathol 94:1084–1093Google Scholar
  33. Zinsou V, Wydra K, Agbicodo E, Ahohouendo B, Rudolph K (2001) Studies on resistance of cassava genotypes to cassava bacterial blight. In: DeBoer S (ed) Plant pathogenic bacteria. Kluwer Academic Press, Netherlands, pp 301–305Google Scholar
  34. Zinsou V, Wydra K, Ahohuendo B, Jorge V, Verdier V (2002) Evaluation of cassava genotypes, including individuals of their genome mapping population, for resistance against bacterial blight. ‘New Aspects of Resistance Research on Cultivated Plants’ Bacterial Diseases. Beitr Züchtungsforschung BAZ 8(3):31–35Google Scholar
  35. Zinsou V, Wydra K, Ahohuendo B, Hau B (2004a) Genotype × environment interactions in symptom development and yield of cassava genotypes in reaction to cassava bacterial blight. Eur J Plant Pathol 111:217–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zinsou V, Wydra K, Ahohuendo B, Hau B (2004b) Effect of soil amendments, intercropping and planting time in combination on the severity of cassava bacterial blight and yield in two ecozones of West Africa. Plant Pathol 53:585–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zinsou V, Wydra K, Ahohuendo B, Schreiber L (2006) Stomatal distribution and leaf waxes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in relation to resistance against cassava bacterial blight. Euphytica 149:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kerstin Wydra
    • 1
  • Agnassim Banito
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kossi Esotina Kpémoua
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Plant Diseases and Plant ProtectionGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University HannoverHannoverGermany
  2. 2.Institut Togolais de Recherche Agronomique (ITRA), CacavéliLoméTogo
  3. 3.Ecole Supérieure d’Agronomie (ESA), Université de LoméLoméTogo

Personalised recommendations