Advertisement

Euphytica

, Volume 154, Issue 3, pp 271–278 | Cite as

Golden rice: introgression, breeding, and field evaluation

  • Swapan K. Datta
  • Karabi Datta
  • Vilas Parkhi
  • Mayank Rai
  • Niranjan Baisakh
  • Gayatri Sahoo
  • Sayeda Rehana
  • Anindya Bandyopadhyay
  • Md. Alamgir
  • Md. S. Ali
  • Editha Abrigo
  • Norman Oliva
  • Lina Torrizo
Article

Abstract

Considerable progress has been made on the genetic engineering of rice for improved nutritional content involving micronutrients and carotenoid content. Golden Rice, developed by genetic engineering (Agrobacterium and biolistic transformation) was used in rice breeding for the transfer of high-nutritional value to the local rice cultivars. Simultaneously, commercial Asian indica rice cultivars were also developed with expression of high-carotenoid levels. The lines were developed based on POSITECH (PMI) selection system or made marker free by segregating out the marker gene from the gene of interest. Anther culture was used to develop the homozygous stable lines, which could be of much use in further introgress-breeding and in farmer’s field. Enhanced carotenoids levels (up to T3 generation) were observed in a number of lines compared to the T0-T1 seeds which could be due to transgeneration effect of growing under greenhouse versus field conditions. However, a few introgressed lines showed less carotenoid levels than the original lines used in the breeding process. Agronomic performance of introgressed lines, non-transgenic controls, and transgenic golden rice (IR64 and BR29) developed at IRRI showed acceptable and comparable data under identical limited field conditions (screenhouse data). Syngenta generated a new Golden Rice (US cultivar) containing high level of carotenoids grown in the field at Louisiana, USA is expected to be available to the public domain. Incorporation of genes for carotenogenesis in seeds by transgenesis or by introgression did not change any significant agronomic characteristics in rice plants. The ongoing and future study of bioavailability, quality, larger field testing and freedom to operate will ensure the benefit of Golden Rice to the people who need them most.

Keywords

Oryzasativa Golden Rice Introgress-breeding Transgenesis Carotenoids 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the USAID and HarvestPlus Challenge Program (“Breeding Crops for Better Nutrition”) for financial and research support and Dr. Adrian Dubbock (Syngenta), Dr. Ingo Potrykus (Retired ETH-Professor) and Dr. Peter Beyer (University of Freiurg, Germany) for providing us with the pmi, pCaCar, and pBaal3. We gratefully thank Dr. M Mahiul Haque from BRRI, Bangladesh for selecting the BR29 lines and transfer to IRRI for developing Golden BR29. Dr. Donald Mackenzie from AgBIOS, Canada for the support of work in Bangladesh along with BRRI (Bangladesh). Special thanks are due to Dr. Gary Toenniessen (Rockefeller Foundation) who supported the Rice Biotechnology program at ETH-Zurich, IRRI, Philippines and to initiate the Golden Rice project. We thank Dr. Tony Conner for discussions and valuable comments.

References

  1. AgBioworld (2004) Biotech crops to help meet demands. http://www.agbioworld.org/newsletter_wm/index.php?caseid = archive&newsid = 2266; Nutritional Benefits of Golden Rice may not be realized for several more years (http://www.lsuagcenter.com/news_archive/2005/December/Headline + News/Nutritional + Benefits + Of + Golden + Rice + May + Not + Be + Realized + For + Several + More + Years.htm)Google Scholar
  2. Baisakh N, Datta K, Rai M, Rehana S, Beyer P, Potrykus I, Datta SK (2001) Development of dihaploid transgenic “golden rice” homozygous for genes involved in the metabolic pathway of β-carotene biosynthesis. Rice Genet Newslett 18:91–94Google Scholar
  3. Baisakh N, Rehana S, Rai M, Oliva N, Tan J, Mackill D, Khush GS, Datta K, Datta SK (2006) Marker-free transgenic (MFT) near-isogenic introgression lines (NILs) of ‘golden’ indica rice (cv IR64) with accumulation of provitaminA in the endosperm tissue. Plant Biotechnol J 4:467–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Datta SK (2005) Androgenic haploids: factors controlling development and its application in crop improvement. Curr Sci 89:1870–1878Google Scholar
  5. Datta SK, Peterhans A, Datta K, Paskowski J, Potrykus I (1990) Genetically engineered indica rice recovered from protoplasts. Bio/Technology 8:736–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Datta K, Baisakh N, Oliva N, Torrizo L, Abrigo E, Tan J, Rai M, Rehana S, Al-Babili S, Beyer P, Potrykus I, Datta SK (2003) Bioengineered ‘golden’ indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems. Plant Biotechnol J 1:81–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Datta K, Rai M, Parkhi V, Oliva N, Tan J, Datta SK (2006) Improved ‘golden’ indica rice and transgeneration enhancement of metabolic target products of carotenoids (β-carotene) in transgenic elite (IR64 and BR29) indica ‘golden’ rice. Curr Sci 91:935–939Google Scholar
  8. Goto F, Yoshihara T, Shigemoto N, Toki S, Takaiwa F (1999) Iron fortification of rice seed by the soybean ferritin gene. Nature Biotechnol 17:282–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Graham RD, Rosser JM (2000) Carotenoids in staple foods: their potential to improve human nutrition. Food Nutr Bull 21(4):404–409Google Scholar
  10. Gregorio G, Senadhira D, Htut H, Graham R (2000) Breeding for trace mineral density in rice. Food Nutr Bull 21(4):382–387Google Scholar
  11. Hoa TTC, Al-Babli S, Schaub P, Potrykus I, Bayer P (2003) Golden indica and japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation. Plant Physiol 133:161–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Khalekuzzaman M, Datta K, Oliva N, Alam MF, Joarder OI, Datta SK (2006) Stable integration, expression and inheritance of the ferritin gene in transgenic elite rice cultivar BR29 with enhanced iron level in the endosperm. Ind J Biotech 5:26–31Google Scholar
  13. Misawa N, Nakagawa M, Kobayashi K, Yamano S, Izawa Y, Nakamura K, Harashima K (1990) Elucidation of the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by functional analysis of gene products expressed in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 172:6704–6712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Murray-Kolb L, Takaiawa F, Goto F, Yoshihara T, Theil E, Beard J (2002) Transgenic rice is a source of iron for iron-depleted rats. J Nutr 132(5):957–960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Parkhi V, Rai M, Tan J, Oliva N, Rehana S, Bandyopadhyay A, Torrizo L, Ghole V, Datta K, Datta SK (2005) Molecular characterization of marker free transgenic indica rice lines that accumulate carotenoids in seed endosperm. Mol Gen Genomics 274:325–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Paine JA, Shipton CA, Chagger S, Howles RM, Kennedy MJ, Vernon G, Wright SY, Hincliffe E, Adams JL, Silverstone AL, Drake R (2006) Improving the nutritional value of Golden rice through increased pro-vitamin A content. Nature Biotech 23:482–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sivakumar B (1998) Current controversies in carotene nutrition. Ind J Med Res 108:157–166Google Scholar
  18. Rai M, Datta K, Baisakh N, Abrigo E, Oliva N, Datta SK (2003) Agronomic performance of Golden indica rice (cv. IR64). Rice Genet Newsl 20:30–33Google Scholar
  19. Tan J, Baisakh N, Oliva N, Torrizo L, Abrigo E, Datta K, Datta SK (2004) The screening of rice germplasm including those transgenic rice lines which accumulate β-carotene in their polished seeds for their carotenoid profile. Int J Food Sci Technol 40:563–569Google Scholar
  20. Vasconcelos M, Datta K, Oliva N, Khalekuzzaman M, Torrizo L, Krishnan S, Oliveira M, Goto F, Datta SK (2003) Enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in transgenic rice with the ferritin gene. Plant Sci 64(3):371–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ye X, Al-Babili S, Klöti A, Zhang J, Lucca P, Beyer P, Potrykus I (2000) Engineering the provitamin A (β-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science 287:303–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swapan K. Datta
    • 1
    • 2
  • Karabi Datta
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vilas Parkhi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mayank Rai
    • 2
    • 4
  • Niranjan Baisakh
    • 2
    • 5
  • Gayatri Sahoo
    • 2
    • 6
  • Sayeda Rehana
    • 2
    • 7
  • Anindya Bandyopadhyay
    • 1
    • 2
  • Md. Alamgir
    • 2
  • Md. S. Ali
    • 8
  • Editha Abrigo
    • 2
  • Norman Oliva
    • 2
  • Lina Torrizo
    • 2
  1. 1.Botany Department University of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biotechnology DivisionIRRIManilaPhilippines
  3. 3.Institute of Plant Genomics and BiotechnologyTexas A & M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  4. 4.Plant Molecular Biology LabCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  5. 5.Louisiana State University AgCenterBaton RougeUSA
  6. 6.Central Rice Research InstituteCuttackIndia
  7. 7.East West Seed Ltd. (Bangladesh)DhakaBangladesh
  8. 8.Biotechnology DivisionBangladesh Rice Research InstituteGazipur Bangladesh

Personalised recommendations