Euphytica

, Volume 154, Issue 1–2, pp 207–218 | Cite as

Genetic analysis of flowering and maturity time in high latitude spring wheat

Genetic analysis of earliness in spring wheat
  • Muhammad Iqbal
  • Alireza Navabi
  • Donald F. Salmon
  • Rong-Cai Yang
  • Brenda M. Murdoch
  • Steve S. Moore
  • Dean Spaner
Article

Abstract

Due to the short growing season in the high northern latitudes, the development of early maturing spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is important to avoid frost damage which can lower production and quality. We investigated earliness of flowering and maturity, and some associated agronomic traits, using a set of randomly selected high northern latitude adapted spring wheat cultivars (differing in maturity) and their F1 and F2 crosses made in a one-way diallel mating design. The parents, and their F1 and F2 crosses were evaluated under field conditions over 2 years. Anthesis and maturity times were controlled by both vernalization response and earliness per se genes, mainly acting additively. Non-additive genetic effects were more important in controlling grain fill duration, grain yield and plant height. Additive × additive epistatic effects were detected for all traits studied except time to anthesis. Segregation analyses of the F2 populations for time to anthesis indicated the presence of different vernalization response genes. Molecular genetic analyses revealed the presence of Vrn-A1 and Vrn-B1 genes in the parental cultivars. Narrow-sense heritability was medium to high (60–86%) for anthesis and maturity times but low to medium (13–55%) for grain fill duration, plant height and grain yield. Selection for early flowering/maturity in early segregating generations would be expected to result in genetic improvement towards earliness in high latitude spring wheats. Incorporation of the vernalization responsive gene Vrn-B1 in combination with vernalization non-responsive gene Vrn-A1 into spring wheats would aid in the development of early maturing cultivars with high grain yield potential for the high latitude wheat growing regions of the northern hemisphere.

Keywords

Diallel cross Earliness Heritability Inheritance Spring wheat Vernalization 

References

  1. Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (AAFRD) (2004) Soil Group Map of Alberta. http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/soils/soils.nsf/soilgroupmap?readform. Cited 1 Feb 2006Google Scholar
  2. Bhatt GM (1972) Inheritance of heading date, plant height, and kernel weight in two spring wheat crosses. Crop Sci 12:95–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen G, Zhu J (2003). QGAStation 1.0. Software for the classical quantitative genetics. Institute of Bioinformatics, Zhejiang University, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  4. Dyck JA, Matus-Cadiz MA, Hucl P, Talbert L, Hunt T, Dubuc JP, Nass H, Clayton G, Dobb J, Quick J (2004) Agronomic performance of hard red spring wheat isolines sensitive and insensitive to photoperiod. Crop Sci 44:1976–1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Edwards LH, Ketata H, Smith EL (1976) Gene action of heading date, plant height, and other characters in two winter wheat crosses. Crop Sci 16:275–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Flood RG, Halloran GM (1986) Genetics and physiology of vernalization response in wheat. Adv Agron 39:87–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fu D, Szűcs P, Yan L, Helguera M, Skinner JS, von Zitzewitz J, Hays PM, Dubcovsky J (2005) Large deletions within the first intron in VRN-1 are associated with spring growth habit in barley and wheat. Mol Gen Genomics 273:54–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gororo NN, Flood RG, Eastwood RF, Eagles HA (2001). Photoperiod and vernalization responses in T. turgidum × T. tauschii synthetic hexaploid wheats. Ann Bot 88:947–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hucl P, Matus-Cadiz M (2002) CDC EMDR-4, CDC EMDR-9, and CDC EMDR-14 spring wheats. Can J Plant Sci 82:411–413Google Scholar
  10. Iqbal M, Navabi A, Salmon DF, Yang R-C, Spaner D (2006) A genetic examination of early flowering and maturity in Canadian spring wheats. Can J Plant Sci 86:(in press)Google Scholar
  11. Jedel PE (1994) Inheritance of vernalization response in three populations of spring wheat. Can J Plant Sci 74:753–757Google Scholar
  12. Jedel PE, Evans LE, Scarth R (1986) Vernalization responses of a selected group of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Can J Plant Sci 66:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kato K, Yamashita S (1991) Varietal variation in photoperiodic response, chilling requirement and narrow-sense earliness and their relation to heading time in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Jpn J Breed 41:475–484Google Scholar
  14. Klaimi YY, Qualset CO (1974) Genetics of heading time in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) II. The inheritance of vernalization response. Genetics 76:119–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Knott DR (1986) Effect of genes for photoperiodism, semi-dwarfism, and awns on agronomic characters in a wheat cross. Crop Sci 26:1158–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kosner J, Pankova K (1998) The detection of allelic variants at the recessive vrn loci of winter wheat. Euphytica 101:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Law CN, Worland AJ (1997) Genetic analysis of some flowering time and adaptive traits in wheat. New Phytol 137:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Levy J, Peterson ML (1972) Responses of spring wheats to vernalization and photoperiod. Crop Sci 12:487–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marshall L, Busch R, Cholick F, Edwards I, Frohberg R (1989) Agronomic performance of spring wheat isolines differing for day length response. Crop Sci 29:752–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nanda GS, Hazarika GN, Gill KS (1981) Inheritance of heading date, plant height, ear length and spikelets per spike in an intervarietal cross of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 60:167–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ortiz-Ferrara G, Mossad MG, Mahalakshmi V, Fischer RA (1995) Photoperiod and vernalization response of wheat under controlled and field conditions. Plant Breed 114:505–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Piepho H-P (1999) Stability analysis using the SAS system. Agron J 91:154–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Poehlman JM, Sleper DA (1995) Breeding field crops. Iowa State University Press, Ames Iowa USA, p 151Google Scholar
  24. Pugsley AT (1971). A genetic analysis of the spring-winter habit of growth in wheat. Aust J Agric Res 22:21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pugsley AT (1972) Additional genes inhibiting winter habit in wheat. Euphytica 21:547–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rao CR (1971) Estimation of variance and covariance components-MINQUE theory. J Multivariate Anal 1:257–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. SAS Institute (2003) Release 9.1. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary NC USAGoogle Scholar
  28. Sheikh S, Singh I, Singh J (2000) Inheritance of some quantitative traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.). Ann Agric Res 21:51–54Google Scholar
  29. Singh H, Sharma SN, Sain RS, Singhania DL (2003) The inheritance of production traits in bread wheat by diallel analysis. SABRAO J 35:1–9Google Scholar
  30. Stelmakh AF (1993) Genetic effect of Vrn genes on heading date and agronomic traits in bread wheat. Euphytica 65:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stelmakh AF (1998) Genetic systems regulating flowering response in wheat. Euphytica 100:359–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. van Beem J, Mohler V, Lukman R, van Ginkel M, William M, Crossa J, Worland AJ (2005) Analysis of genetic factors influencing the developmental rate of globally important CIMMYT wheat cultivars. Crop Sci 45:2113–2119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Whitechurch EM, Snape JW (2003) Developmental responses to vernalization in wheat deletion lines for chromosomes 5A and 5D. Plant Breed 122:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Worland AJ, Borner A, Korzun V, Li WM, Petrovic S, Sayers EJ (1998) The influence of photoperiod genes on the adaptability of European winter wheats. Euphytica 100:385–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xiang B, Li B (2001) A new mixed analytical method for genetic analysis of diallel data. Can J For Res 31:2252–2259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yan L, Loukoianov A, Tranquilli G, Helguera M, Fahima T, Dubcovsky J (2003) Positional cloning of wheat vernalization gene VRN1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:6263–6268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yan L, Helguera M, Kato K, Fukuyama S, Sherman J, Dubcovsky J (2004) Allelic variation at the VRN-1 promoter region in polyploidy wheat. Theor Appl Genet 109:1677–1686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yang R-C (2002) Likelihood-based analysis of genotype-environment interactions. Crop Sci 42:1434–1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhu J (1994) General genetic models and new analysis methods for quantitative traits. J Zhejiang Agric Univ 20:551–559Google Scholar
  40. Zhu J (2003) Diallel analysis for an additive-dominance-epistasis model with genotype-by-environment interaction effects. In: Kang MS (ed) Handbook of formulas and software for plant geneticists and breeders. Haworth press, New York USAGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhu J, Weir BS (1996) Mixed model approaches for diallel analysis on a bio-model. Genet Res Camb 68:233–240Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Iqbal
    • 1
  • Alireza Navabi
    • 1
  • Donald F. Salmon
    • 2
  • Rong-Cai Yang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Brenda M. Murdoch
    • 1
  • Steve S. Moore
    • 1
  • Dean Spaner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Food and Nutritional ScienceUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Field Crop Development Centre, Alberta Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentLacombeCanada
  3. 3.Policy Secretariat, Alberta Agriculture and Rural DevelopmentEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations