Euphytica

, Volume 153, Issue 1–2, pp 43–57

Characterization of flowering time and SSR marker analysis of spring and winter type Brassica napus L. germplasm

  • Von Mark V. Cruz
  • Richard Luhman
  • Laura F. Marek
  • Charlie L. Rife
  • Randy C. Shoemaker
  • E. Charles Brummer
  • Candice A. C. Gardner
Original Paper

Abstract

Flowering dates and life forms of all available Brassica napus accessions conserved at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) were characterized, and a survey of molecular variation was conducted by using simple sequence repeats (SSR) in order to support better management of accessions with diverse life forms. To characterize flowering phenology, 598 B. napus accessions from the NCRPIS collection were planted in Iowa and Kansas field sites together with a current commercial cultivar and observed for days to flowering (first, 50% and 100% flowering) in 2003. Days from planting to 50% flowering ranged from 34 to 83 in Iowa and from 53 to 89 in Kansas. The mean accumulated growing degree days (GDD) to 50% flowering were 1,997 in Iowa, and 2,106 in Kansas. Between locations, the correlation in flowering time (r = 0.42) and the correlation in computed GDD (r = 0.40) were both significant. Differences in flowering-time rank were observed for several accessions. Accessions that failed to flower in Iowa in a single growing season comprised 28.5% of the accessions; of the flowering accessions, 100% plant flowering was not always achieved. Accessions were grouped according to flowering time. A stratified sample of 50 accessions was selected from these groups, including 10 non-flowering and 40 flowering accessions of diverse geographic origins and phenological variation. The flowering time observed in the sampled accessions when grown in the greenhouse were found to be significantly correlated to the flowering time observed in the field locations in Iowa (r = 0.79) and Kansas (r = 0.49). Thirty SSR markers, selected across 18 Brassica linkage groups from BrassicaDB, and 3 derived from Brassica expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were scored in the stratified sample. An average of three bands per SSR primer pair was observed. Associations of SSR marker fragments with the life forms were determined. Analysis of molecular variation by using cluster analysis and ordination resulted in recognizable, distinct groups of annual and biennial life-form types, which may have direct applications for planning and management of future seed regenerations.

Keywords

Brassica napus Diversity Genebank Microsatellites Phenology Rapeseed 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdurakhmonov IY, Abdullaev AA, Saha S, Buriev ZT, Arslanov D, Kuryazov Z, Mavlonov GT, Rizaeva SM, Reddy UK, Jenkins JN, Abdullaev A, Abdukarimov A (2005) Simple sequence repeat marker associated with a natural leaf defoliation trait in tetraploid cotton. J Hered 96:644–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allender CJ (2004) Evaluation of 48 public domain Brassica microsatellites. http://www.brassica.info/ssr/SSRinfosheet.xls (cited 11th April 2005)
  3. Boukema IW, van Hintum TJL (1999) Genetic resources. In: Gómez-Campo C (ed) Biology of Brassica coenospecies. Developments in plant genetics and breeding, vol. 4. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 461–479Google Scholar
  4. Bouhon EJR, Ramsay LD, Craft JA, Arthur AE, Marshall DF, Lydiate DJ, Kearsey MJ (1998) The association of flowering time quantitative loci with duplicated regions and candidate loci in Brassica oleracea. Genetics 150:393–401Google Scholar
  5. Butruille DV, Guries RP, Osborn TC (1999) Linkage analysis of molecular markers and quantitative trait loci in populations of inbred backcross lines of Brassicas napus L. Genetics 153:949–964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Charters YM, Robertson A, Wilkinson MJ, Ramsay G (1996) PCR analysis of oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera) using 5′-anchored simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Theor Appl Genet 92:442–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dahanayake SR, Galwey NW (1998) Effects of interactions between low and high temperature treatments on flowering of spring rape. Ann Bot 81:609–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dahanayake SR, Galwey NW (1999) Effects of interactions between low-temperature treatments, gibberellins (GA3) and photoperiod on flowering and stem height of spring rape. Ann Bot 84:321–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Diaz O, Gustafsson M, Astley D (1997) Effect of regeneration procedures on genetic diversity in Brassica napus and B. rapa as estimated by isozyme analysis. Genet Res Crop Evol 44: 523–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diers BW, Osborn TC (1994) Genetic diversity of oilseed Brassica napus germplasm based on restriction fragment length polymorphism. Theor Appl Genet 88:662–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eckert DJ (2005) Growing degree days as a method of rating the maturity of corn hybrids. Ohio State University Extension, Agronomy Fact Sheet no. AGF-101-90. http://ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/0101.html (cited 11th April 2005)Google Scholar
  12. Farooq S, Azam F (2002) Molecular markers in plant breeding. II. Some pre-requisites for use. Pakistan J Biol Sci 5:1141–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Friend DJC (1985) Brassica. In: Halevy AH (ed) CRC Handbook of Flowering, vol. II. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL, pp 48–77Google Scholar
  14. Gebhart C, Ballvora A, Walkemeier B, Oberhagemann P, Schuler K (2004) Assessing genetic potential in germplasm collections of crop plants by marker–trait association: a case study for potatoes with qualitative variation of resistance to late blight and maturity type. Mol Breeding 13:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gómez-Campo C (1999) Taxonomy. In: Gómez-Campo C (ed) Biology of Brassica coenospecies. Developments in plant genetics and breeding, vol. 4. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 3–32Google Scholar
  16. Gómez-Campo C, Prakash S (1999) Origin and domestication. In: Gómez-Campo C (ed) Biology of Brassica coenospecies. Developments in plant genetics and breeding, vol. 4. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 33–58Google Scholar
  17. Hyam R (1998) Field collection: plants. In: Karp A, Isaac PG, Ingram DS (eds) Molecular tools for screening biodiversity. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 49–50Google Scholar
  18. Kadirvel P, Gunathilagaraj K (2003) Detection of simple sequence repeat markers associated with resistance to whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvath), in rice. Int Rice Res Notes 28(2):22–23Google Scholar
  19. Koenig WD (1999) Spatial autocorrelation of ecological phenomena. TREE 14:22–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lackey J (1996) Biology of rapeseed. USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). http://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotech/rapeseed.html (cited 11th April 2005)
  21. Lagercrantz U, Putterill J, Coupland G, Lydiate D (1996) Comparative mapping in Arabidopsis and Brassica, fine scale genome collinearity and congruence of genes controlling flowering time. Plant J 9:13–20Google Scholar
  22. Lagercrantz U, Österberg MK, Lascoux M (2002) Sequence variation and haplotype structure at the putative flowering-time locus COL1 of Brassica nigra. Mol Biol Evol 19:1474–1482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Lombard V, Baril CP, Dubreuil P, Blouet F, Zhang D (1999) Potential use of AFLP markers for the distinction of rapeseed cultivars. In: New Horizons for an old crop. Proceedings of the 10th international rapeseed congress, Canberra, Australia. http://www.regional. org.au/au/gcirc/4/587.htm (cited 11th April 2005)
  24. Lowe AJ, Moule C, Trick M, Edwards KJ (2004) Efficient large-scale development of microsatellites for marker and mapping applications in Brassica crop species. Theor Appl Genet 108:1103–1112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maguire TL, Peakall R, Saenger P (2002) Comparative analysis of genetic diversity in the mangrove species Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. (Avicenniaceae) detected by AFLPs and SSRs. Theor Appl Genet 104:388–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martynov VV, Khavkin EE (2004) Two homologs of the FLOWERING LOCUS C gene from leaf mustard (Brassica juncea). Russ J Plant Physiol 51:234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McNaughton IH (1995) Swedes and rapes—Brassica napus (Cruciferae). In: Smartt J, Simmonds NW (eds) Evolution of crop plants, 2nd edn. Longman Scientific & Technical, London, U.K., pp 68–75Google Scholar
  28. Nei M, Li WH (1979) Mathematical models for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5269–5273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Osborn TC, Lukens L (2003) The molecular genetic basis of flowering time variation in Brassica species. In: Nagata T, Tabata S (eds) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol. 52. Brassicas and legumes from genome structure to breeding. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp 69–86Google Scholar
  30. Padmaja KL, Arumugam N, Gupta V, Mukhopadhyay A, Sodhi YS, Pental D, Pradhan AK (2005) Mapping and tagging of seed coat color and the identification of microsatellite markers for marker-assisted manipulation of the trait in Brassica juncea. Theor Appl Genet 111:8–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Peakall R, Smouse PE (2006) GenAlEx 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol Ecol Notes 6:288–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Plieske J, Struss D (2001) Microsatellite markers for genome analysis in Brassica. I. Development in Brassica napus and abundance in Brassicaceae species. Theor Appl Genet 102:689–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pradhan AK, Prakash S, Mukhopadhyay A, Pental D (1992) Phylogeny of Brassica and allied genera based␣on variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA patterns: molecular and taxonomic classifications are incongruous. Theor Appl Genet 85:331– 340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rajcan I, Kasha KJ, Kott LS, Beversdorf WD (1999) Detection of molecular markers associated with linolenic and erucic acid levels in spring rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.). Euphytica 105:173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Raybould AF, Mogg RJ, Clarke RT, Gliddon CJ, Gray AJ (1999) Variation and population structure at microsatellite and isozyme loci in wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) in Dorset (UK). Genet Res Crop Evol 46:351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Riaz A, Li G, Quresh Z, Swati MS, Quiros CF (2001) Genetic diversity of oilseed Brassica napus inbred lines based on sequence-related amplified polymorphism and its relation to hybrid performance. Plant Breeding 120:411–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rief JC, Melchinger AE, Frisch M (2005) Genetical and mathematical properties of similarity and dissimilarity coefficients applied in plant breeding and seed bank management. Crop Sci 45:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rohlf FJ (2005) NTSYS-pc: numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system, ver. 2.2. Exeter Publishing, Setauket, NYGoogle Scholar
  39. Salywon AM, Barber M, Herling N, Stewart W, Dierig DA (2004) Data mining for microsatellites in expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species for use in Lesquerella (Brassicaceae). Association for the advancement of industrial crops conference, Minneapolis, MN. September 19–22, 2004, p 20Google Scholar
  40. Sauer JD (1993) Historical geography of crop plants: a select roster. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  41. Simpson GG, Gendall AR, Dean C (1999) When to switch to flowering. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 99:519–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Skinner DZ, Loughin T, Obert DE (2000) Segregation and conditional probability association of molecular markers with traits in autotetraploid alfalfa. Mol Breeding 6: 295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Snowdon RJ, Friedt W (2004) Molecular markers in Brassica oilseed breeding: current status and future possibilities. Plant Breeding 123:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Song K, Osborn TC (1992) Polyphyletic origins of Brassica napus: New evidence based on organelle and nuclear RFLP analysis. Genome 35:992–1001Google Scholar
  45. Sovero M (1993) Rapeseed, a new oilseed crop for the United States. In: Janick J, Simon JE (eds) New crops. Wiley, New York, NY, pp 302–307Google Scholar
  46. Thomas P (2003) Canola grower’s manual. Canola Council of Canada, Winnipeg, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  47. Tommasini L, Batley J, Arnold GM, Cooke RJ, Donini P, Lee D, Law JR, Lowe C, Moule C, Trick M, Edwards KJ (2003) The development of simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers to complement distinctiveness, uniformity and stability testing of rape (Brassica napus L.) varieties. Theor Appl Genet 106:1091–1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Tonguç M, Griffiths PD (2004) Genetic relationships of Brassica vegetables determined using database derived simple sequence repeats. Euphytica 137:193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Uzunova MI, Ecke W (1999) Abundance, polymorphism and genetic mapping of microsatellites in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Plant Breeding 118:323–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Westman A, Kresovich S (1999) Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based marker variation in Brassica nigra genebank accessions and weed populations. Euphytica 109:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yu CY, Hu SW, Zhan HX, Guo AG (2005) Genetic distance revealed by morphological characters, isozymes, proteins and RAPD markers and their relationships with hybrid performance in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Theor Appl Genet 110:511–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Von Mark V. Cruz
    • 1
  • Richard Luhman
    • 1
  • Laura F. Marek
    • 1
  • Charlie L. Rife
    • 2
  • Randy C. Shoemaker
    • 1
    • 3
  • E. Charles Brummer
    • 1
  • Candice A. C. Gardner
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  2. 2.Department of AgronomyKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  3. 3.USDA-ARS Corn Insect and Crop Genetics Research UnitAmesUSA
  4. 4.USDA-ARS Plant Introduction Research Unit and North Central Regional Plant Introduction StationAmesUSA
  5. 5.Monsanto Co.Saint LouisUSA
  6. 6.Blue Sun BiodieselWestminsterUSA

Personalised recommendations