Application of the TRAP technique to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) genotyping
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To demonstrate the applicability of the target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) marker technique to lettuce genotyping, we fingerprinted 53 lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars and six wild accessions (three from each of the two wild species, L. saligna L. and L. serriola L.). Seven hundred and sixty-nine fragments from 50 to 900 bp in length were amplified in 10 PCR reactions using 10 fixed primers in combination with four fluorescent labeled arbitrary primers. Three hundred and eighty-eight of these fragments were polymorphic among the 59 Lactuca entries and 107 fragments were polymorphic among the 53 lettuce cultivars and the six wild accessions; 251 fragments were present only in the wild species. These markers not only discriminated all cultivars, but also revealed the evolutionary relationship among the three species: L. sativa, the cultivated species, is more closely related to L. serriola than to L. saligna. Cluster analysis grouped the cultivars by horticultural types with a few exceptions. These results are consistent with previous findings using RFLP, AFLP, and SAMPL markers. The TRAP markers revealed significant differences in genetic variability among horticultural types, measured by the average genetic similarity among the cultivars of the same type. Within the sample set, the leaf type and butterhead types possessed relatively high genetic variability, the iceberg types had moderate variability and the romaine types had the lowest variability. The genetic behavior of TRAP markers was assessed with a mapping population of 45 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an interspecific cross between L. serriola and L. sativa. Almost all the markers segregated in the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio and are being incorporated into the existing lettuce linkage maps. Our results indicate that the TRAP markers can provide a powerful technique for fingerprinting lettuce cultivars.
Key wordscluster analysis EST-derived PCR primers genetic similarity target region amplification polymorphism
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