Introgressing resistance to bacterial and viral diseases from the middle American to Andean common bean
The genetic base of cultivars within market classes of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is narrow. Moreover, small- and medium-seeded Middle American cultivars often possess higher yield and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses than their large-seeded Andean counterparts. Thus, for broadening the genetic base and breeding for higher yielding multiple stress resistant Andean cultivars use of inter-gene pool populations is essential. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of introgressing resistance to Been common mosaic virus (BCMV, a potyvirus), and the common [caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp) and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans (Xcpf)] and halo [caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp)] bacterial blights from the Middle American to Andean bean, using gamete selection. Also, we investigated the relative importance of the use of a landrace cultivar versus elite breeding line as the last parent making maximum genetic contribution in multiple-parent inter-gene pool crosses for breeding for resistance to diseases. Two multiple-parent crosses, namely ZARA I = Wilkinson 2 /// ‘ICA Tundama’ / ‘Edmund’ // VAX 3 / PVA 773 and ZARA II = ‘Moradillo’ /// ICA Tundama / Edmund // VAX 3 / PVA 773 were made. From the F1 to F5 single plant selection was practiced for resistance to the common and halo bacterial blights in both populations at Valladolid, Spain. The parents and F5-derived F6 breeding lines were evaluated separately for BCMV, and common and halo bacterial blights in the greenhouse at Filer and Kimberly, Idaho in 2001. They were also evaluated for the two bacterial blights, growth habit, seed color and 100-seed weight at Valladolid in 2002. All 20 F1 plants of ZARA I were resistant or intermediate to common and halo bacterial blights in the greenhouse, but their F2 and subsequent families segregated for both bacterial blights. Segregation for resistant, intermediate, and susceptible plants for common bacterial blight occurred in the F1 of ZARA II. Simple correlation coefficient for common bacterial blight between the F1 and F1-derived F2 families was positive (r = 0.54 P < 0.05) for ZARA II. From the F2 to F5 the number of families resistant to both bacterial blights decreased in both populations. Only four of 20 F1 plants in ZARA I resulted in seven F6 breeding lines, and only one of 32 F1 plants in ZARA II resulted in one F6 breeding line resistant to the three diseases. None of the selected breeding lines had seed size as large as the largest Andean parent. The use of elite breeding line or cultivar as the last parent making maximum genetic contribution to the multiple-parent inter-gene pool crosses, relatively large population size in the F1, and simultaneous selection for plant type, seed traits as well as resistance to diseases would be crucial for introgression and pyramiding of favorable alleles and quantitative trait loci (QTL) of interest between the Andean and Middle American beans.
KeywordsAndean and middle American gene pool breeding common bean disease resistance Phaseolus vulgaris L.
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