Eight milling quality and protein properties of autumn-sown Chinese wheats were investigated using 59 cultivars and advanced lines grown in 14 locations in China from 1995 to 1998. Wide ranges of variability for all traits were observed across genotypes and locations. Genotype, location, year, and their interactions all significantly influenced most of the quality parameters. Kernel hardness, Zeleny sedimentation value, and mixograph development time were predominantly influenced by the effects of genotype. Genotype, location and genotype × location interaction were all important sources of variation for thousand kernel weight, test weight, protein content, and falling number, whereas genotype × location interaction had the largest effect on flour yield. Most of the genotypes were characterized by weak gluten strength with Zeleny sedimentation values less than 40 ml and mixograph development time shorter than 3 min. Eight groups of genotypes were recognized based on the average quality performance, grain hardness and gluten strength were the two parameters that determined the grouping, with contributions from protein content. Genotypes such as Zhongyou 16 and Annong 8903 displayed good milling quality, high grain hardness, protein content and strong gluten strength with high sedimentation value and long mixograph development time. Genotypes such as Lumai 15 and Yumai 18 were characterized by low grain hardness, protein content and weak gluten strength. Genotypes such as Yannong 15 and Chuanmai 24 were characterized by strong gluten strength with high sedimentation value and long mixograph development time, but low grain hardness and protein content lower than 12.3%. Genotypes such as Jingdong 6 and Xi’an 8 had weak gluten strength, but with high grain hardness and protein content higher than 12.2%. Five groups of locations were identified, and protein content and gluten strength were the two parameters that determined the grouping. Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Nanyang, Zhumadian and Nanjing produced wheats with medium to strong gluten strength and medium protein content, although there was still a large variation for most of the traits investigated between the locations. Wheat produced in Yantai was characterized by strong gluten strength, but with low protein content. Jinan, Anyang and Linfen locations produced wheats with medium to weak gluten strength and medium to high protein content. Wheats produced in Yangling, Zhenzhou, and Chengdu were characterized by weak gluten strength with medium to low protein content, whereas wheats produced in Xuzhou and Wuhan were characterized by weak gluten strength with low protein content. Industrial grain quality could be substantially improved through integrating knowledge of geographic genotype distribution with key location variables that affected end-use quality.