Advertisement

Understanding Settlement Pathways of African Immigrants in France Through a Capability Approach: Do Pre-migratory Characteristics Matter?

  • Anne Gosselin
  • Annabel Desgrées du Loû
  • Eva Lelièvre
  • France Lert
  • Rosemary Dray-Spira
  • Nathalie Lydié
  • the Parcours Study Group
Article

Abstract

With the increase in asylum-related immigration since 2015, understanding how immigrants settle in a new country is at the centre of social and political debate in European countries. The objective of this study is to determine whether the necessary time to settle for Sub-Saharan Africa immigrants in France depends more on pre-migratory characteristics or on the structural features of the host society. Taking a capability approach, we define settlement as the acquisition of three basic resources: a personal dwelling, a legal permit of a least 1 year and paid work. We use data from the PARCOURS survey, a life-event history survey conducted from 2012 to 2013 that collected 513 life histories of Sub-Saharan African immigrants living in France. Situations regarding housing, legal status and activity were documented year by year since the arrival of the respondent. We use a Kaplan–Meier analysis and chronograms to describe the time needed for settlement, first for each resource (personal dwelling, legal permit and paid work) and then for the combined indicator of settlement. Discrete-time logistic regressions are used to model the determinants of this settlement process. Overall, women and men require 6 and 7 years (medians), respectively, to acquire basic resources in France. This represents a strikingly long period of time in which immigrants lack basic security. The settlement process varies according to gender, but very few sociodemographic factors influence settlement dynamics. Therefore, the length of the settlement process may be due to structural features of the host society.

Keywords

Settlement Migration Life-course approach Sub-Saharan immigrants France 

Notes

Aknowledgements

The authors would like to thank all the persons who participated in the study, the RAAC-Sida, COMEDE, FORIM and SOS hepatitis associations for their support in preparing and conducting the survey, G Vivier (INED) and A Gervais (AP-HP) for their support in preparing the questionnaire, H. Panjo for statistical support, A Guillaume for communication tools, the ClinSearch and Ipsos societies for data collection and staff at all participating centres.

The PARCOURS Study Group

The PARCOURS Study Group included A Desgrées du Loû, F Lert, R Dray Spira, N Bajos, N Lydié (scientific coordinators), J Pannetier, A Ravalihasy, A Gosselin, E Rodary, D Pourette, J Situ, P Revault, P Sogni, J Gelly, Y Le Strat, N Razafindratsima.

Funding

This study was supported by the French National Agency for research on AIDS and Viral hepatitis (ANRS) and the General Directorate of Health (DGS, French Ministry of Health). The sponsor of the study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation or writing of the paper.

Supplementary material

10680_2017_9463_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (253 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 253 kb)

References

  1. Akresh, I. R. (2008). Occupational trajectories of legal US immigrants: Downgrading and recovery. Population and Development Review, 34(3), 435–456.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2008.00231.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beauchemin, C., Borrel, C., & Régnard, C. (2013). Immigrants in France: A female majority. Population and Societies, 502. https://www.ined.fr/fichier/s_rubrique/19170/population_societies_2013_502_immigrants_women.en.pdf.
  3. Beauchemin, C., & González-Ferrier, A. (2011). Sampling international migrants with origin-based snowballing method: New evidence on biases and limitations. Demographic Research, 25, 103–134.  https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2011.25.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beauchemin, C., Hamel, C., Lesné, M., Simon, P., & Teo Survey Team. (2010). Discrimination: A question of visible minorities. Population and Societies, 466. https://www.ined.fr/fichier/s_rubrique/19134/pesa466.en.pdf.
  5. Beauchemin, C., Lhommeau, B., & Simon, P. (2015). Histoires migratoires et profils socioéconomiques. In H. Beauchemin & Simon (Eds.), Trajectoires et Origines. Enquête sur la diversité des populations en France. Paris: Ined.Google Scholar
  6. Bernardot, M. (2006). Les foyers de travailleurs migrants à Paris. Voyage dans la chambre noire. Hommes & Migrations, 1264, 57–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernardot, M. (2008). Loger les immigrés. La Sonacotra 1956–2006. Editions du Croquant. Collection Terra. Broissieux.Google Scholar
  8. Block, L., & Bonjour, S. (2013). Fortress Europe or Europe of rights? The Europeanisation of family migration policies in France, Germany and the Netherlands. European Journal of Migration and Law, 15(2), 203–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonvalet, C., & Bringé, A. (2010). Les trajectoires socio-spatiales des Franciliens depuis leur départ de chez les parents. Temporalités, no [En ligne, 11]. http://temporalites.revues.org/1205.
  10. Breem, Y. (2013). L’insertion professionnelle des immigrés et de leurs descendants en 2011. Infos migrations, 48.Google Scholar
  11. Brinbaum, Y., Safi, M., & Simon, P. (2015). Les discriminations en France: entre perception et expérience. In H. Beauchemin & Simon (Eds.), Trajectoires et Origines. Enquête sur la diversité des populations en France. Paris: Ined.Google Scholar
  12. Castagnone, E., Nazio, T., Bartolini, L., & Schoumaker, B. (2014). Understanding transnational labour market trajectories of African-European migrants: Evidence from the MAFE survey. International Migration Review, 49(1), 200–231.  https://doi.org/10.1111/imre.12152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Castles, S., de Haas, H., & Miller, M. J. (2014a). Introduction. In The age of migration. International population movements in the modern world (5th ed., pp. 1–22). Palgrave and Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. Castles, S., de Haas, H., & Miller, M. J. (2014b). New ethnic minorities and society. In The age of migration. International population movements in the modern world (5th ed., pp. 264–294). Palgrave and Macmillan.Google Scholar
  15. Castles, S., de Haas, H., & Miller, M. J. (2014c). Theories of migration. In The age of migration. International population movements in the modern world (5th ed., pp. 25–53). Palgrave and Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Courgeau, D. (1991). Analyse des données biographiques erronées. Population, 46(1), 89–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dietrich-Ragon, P., & Grieve, M. (2017). On the sidelines of French society. Homelessness among migrants and their descendants. Population, 72(1), 7–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. du Loû, D., Annabel, J. P., Ravalihasy, A., Le Guen, M., Gosselin, A., Panjo, H., et al. (2016). Is hardship during migration a determinant of HIV infection? Results from the ANRS PARCOURS study of sub-saharan African migrants in France. AIDS, 30, 645–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eurostat. (2016). Migration and migrant population statistics—statistics explained. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Migration_and_migrant_population_statistics#Migrant_population.
  20. Flahaux, M. L., Beauchemin, C., & Schoumaker, B. (2013). Partir, revenir: un tableau des tendances migratoires congolaises et sénégalaises». In Migrations africaines: le codéveloppement en questions. Essai de démographie politique (Beauchemin, Kabbanji, Sakho & Shoumaker dir.), Armand Colin/Ined. Recherches. Paris.Google Scholar
  21. Fondation Abbé Pierre. (2015). L’état du mal logement en Ile-de-France. Un éclairage régional. http://www.fondation-abbe-pierre.fr/sites/default/files/content-files/files/eclairage_regional_2015_-_letat_du_mal-logement_en_ile-de-france.pdf.
  22. De Genova, N. P. (2002). Migrant “illegality” and deportability in everyday life. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 419–447.  https://doi.org/10.2307/4132887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. de Haas, H. (2009). Mobility and human development. Human Development Research Paper. United Nations Development Programme. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdrp_2009_01_rev.pdf.
  24. de Valk, H. A. G., Windzio, M., Wingens, M., & Aybek, C. (2011). Immigrant settlement and the life course: An exchange of research perspectives and outlook for the future. In Wingens et al. (Eds.), A life-course perspective on migration and integration. New-York: Springer.Google Scholar
  25. Garcin, S. (2011). La mobilité résidentielle des nouveaux migrants. Infos migrations, 21.Google Scholar
  26. Gosselin, A., Desgrées du Loû, A., & Pannetier, J. (forthcoming). Les migrants subsahariens face à la précarité résidentielle et administrative à l’arrivée en France: l’enquête ANRS Parcours. La population de la France face au VIH/sida (Bergouignan Ed.), Collection Populations Vulnérables.Google Scholar
  27. Houstoun, M. F., Kramer, R. G., & Barrett, J. M. (1984). Female predominance of immigration to the United States since 1930: A first look. The International Migration Review, 18(4 Spec No), 908–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. INSEE. (2012a). Étrangers/Immigrés - Séries issues des recensements de la population—RP2011. Cellule “Statistiques et études sur les populations étrangères”.Google Scholar
  29. INSEE. (2012b). Immigrés et descendants d’immigrés en France. Conditions de vie. Insee Références.Google Scholar
  30. INSEE. (2012c). Immigrés et descendants d’immigrés en France. Education et maîtrise de la langue. Insee RéférencesGoogle Scholar
  31. Jolly, C., Lainé, F., & Breem, Y. (2012). L’emploi et les métiers des immigrés. Document de travail. Centre d’Analyse Stratégique.Google Scholar
  32. Kleinepier, T., de Valk, Helga A. G., & Van Gaalen, R. (2015). Life paths of migrants: A sequence analysis of Polish migrants’ family life trajectories. European Journal of Population, 31(2), 155–179.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10680-015-9345-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Larchanché, S. (2012). Intangible obstacles: Health implications of stigmatization, structural violence, and fear among undocumented immigrants in France. Social Science & Medicine, Part Special Issue: Migration,’illegality’, and health: Mapping embodied vulnerability and debating health-related deservingness, 74(6), 858–863.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.08.016.Google Scholar
  34. Latcheva, R., & Herzog-Punzenberger, B. (2011). Integration trajectories: A mixed method approach. In Wingens et al. (Eds.), A life-course perspective on migration and integration. New-York: Springer.Google Scholar
  35. Lelièvre, E., Roubaud, F., Tichit, C., Vivier, G. (2009). Factual data and perceptions: Fuzziness in observation and analysis. In P. Antoine & E. Lelièvre (Eds.), Fuzzy states: Observing, modelling and interpreting complex trajectories in life histories GRAB. Méthodes et Savoirs n°6. Paris: INED/CEPED.Google Scholar
  36. Mattoo, A., Neagu, I. C., & Özden, Ç. (2008). Brain waste? Educated immigrants in the US labor market. Journal of Development Economics, 87(2), 255–269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2007.05.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mazuy, M., Barbiery, M., & d’Albis, H. (2014). Recent demographic trends in France: The number of marriages continues to decrease. Population, 69(3), 313–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Morokvasic, M. (1984). Birds of passage are also women. The International Migration Review, 18(4), 886–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Obucina, O. (2013). Occupational trajectories and occupational cost among Senegalese immigrants in Europe. Demographic Research, 28(19), 547–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Or, Z., Jusot, F., & Yilmaz, E. (2009). Inégalités de recours aux soins en Europe, Summary. Revue économique, 60(2), 521–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Petit, P., Duguet, E., L’Horty, Y., du Parquet, L., & Sari, F. (2013). Discrimination à l’embauche: les effets du genre et de l’origine se cumulent-ils systématiquement ? Economie et statistique, 464(1), 141–153.  https://doi.org/10.3406/estat.2013.10234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Piore, M. J. (1979). Birds of passage: Migrant labor and industrial societies. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Simon, P., Beauchemin, C., & Hamel, C. (2015). Introduction. In H. Beauchemin & Simon (Eds.), Trajectoires et Origines. Enquête sur la diversité des populations en France. Paris: Ined.Google Scholar
  45. Simón, H., Ramos, R., & Sanromá, E. (2014). Immigrant occupational mobility: Longitudinal evidence from Spain. European Journal of Population, 30, 223–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. South, S. J., Crowder, K., & Chavez, E. (2005). Migration and spatial assimilation among U.S. Latinos: Classical versus segmented trajectories. Demography, 42(3), 497–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stovel, K., & Bolan, M. (2004). Residential trajectories using optimal alignment to reveal the structure of residential mobility. Sociological Methods & Research, 32(4), 598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tardieu, M. (2006). Les Africains en France. De 1914 à nos jours. Editions du Rocher. Gens d’ici et d’ailleurs. Monaco.Google Scholar
  49. Toma, S., & Vause, S. (2011). The role of kin and friends in male and female international mobility from Senegal and DR Congo. MAFE Working Paper 13.Google Scholar
  50. Vickstrom, E. (2014). Pathways into irregular status among senegalese migrants in Europe. International Migration Review, 48(4), 1062–1099.  https://doi.org/10.1111/imre.12154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CEPEDUMR Université Paris Descartes, IRD, InsermParisFrance
  2. 2.INEDParisFrance
  3. 3.IRDMarseilleFrance
  4. 4.UMRS 1136INSERM - Sorbonne Universités UPMCParisFrance
  5. 5.Santé Publique FranceSaint-DenisFrance

Personalised recommendations