Advertisement

Ethical Theory and Moral Practice

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 1309–1323 | Cite as

Reactive Attitudes, Forgiveness, and the Second-Person Standpoint

  • Alexandra Couto
Article
  • 485 Downloads

Abstract

Philosophers discussing forgiveness have usually been split between those who think that forgiveness is typically virtuous, even when the wrongdoer doesn’t repent, and those who think that, for forgiveness to be virtuous, certain pre-conditions must be satisfied. I argue that Darwall’s second-personal account of morality offers significant theoretical support for the latter view. I argue that if, as Darwall claims, reactive attitudes issue a demand, this demand needs to be adequately answered for forgiveness to be warranted. It follows that we should reject the thesis that unconditional forgiveness is appropriate in the absence of repentance.

Keywords

Forgiveness Darwall Second-person standpoint Reactive attitudes 

References

  1. Allais L (2008a) Dissolving reactive attitudes: forgiving and understanding. S Afr J Philos 27(3):179–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allais L (2008b) Wiping the slate clean: the heart of forgiveness. Philos Public Aff 36(1):33–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker H (1973) Outsiders: study in the sociology of deviance. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Bovens L (2009) Must I be forgiven. Analysis 69(2):227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Butler J (1897) Fifteen Sermons. In: Gladston WE (ed) The works of Joseph Butler, vol 2. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. Calhoun C (1989) Responsibility and reproach. Ethics 99(2):389–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Corlett A (2006) Forgiveness, apologies and retributive punishment. Am Philos Q 43(1):25–42Google Scholar
  8. Darwall S (1977) Two kinds of respect. Ethics 88(1):36–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Darwall S (2006) The second-person standpoint. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. Darwall S (2010) Precis: the second-person standpoint. Philos Phenomenol Res 81(1):216–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ekstrom LW (2000) Free will: a philosophical study. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  12. Fischer J, Ravizza M (eds) (1993) Perspectives on moral responsibility. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  13. Garrard E, McNaughton D (2002) In defence of unconditional forgiveness. Proc Aristot Soc 103(1)Google Scholar
  14. Goffman I (1963) Stigma: notes on the management of spoiled identity. Simon and Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Govier T (1999) Forgiveness and the unforgivable. Am Philos Q 36(1):59–75Google Scholar
  16. Hampton J, Murphy J (1990) Forgiveness and mercy. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  17. Hieronymi P (2001) Articulating an uncompromising forgiveness. Philos Phenomenol Res 62(3):529–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Holmgren M (1993) Forgiveness and the intrinsic value of persons. Am Philos Q 341–352Google Scholar
  19. Holroyd J (2010) The retributive emotions: passions and pains of punishment. Philos Pap 39(3):343–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hughes PM (1995) Moral anger, forgiving, and condoning. J Soc Philos 26(1):103–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hurley E, Macnamara C (2011) Beyond belief: towards a theory of the reactive attitudes. Philos Pap 39(3):373–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kekes J (2009) Blame vs Forgiveness. Monist 92(4):488–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kolnai A (1973) Forgiveness. Proc Aristot Soc 74:91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Milam P-E (2015) How is self-forgiveness possible. Pac Philos QGoogle Scholar
  25. Murphy J (1982) Forgiveness and Resentment. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 7(1):503–516Google Scholar
  26. Novitz D (1998) Forgiveness and self-respect. Philos Phenomenol Res 58(2):299–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pettigrove G (2004) Unapologetic forgiveness. Am Philos Q 41(3):187–204Google Scholar
  28. Radzik L (2004) Making amends. Am Philos Q 41(2):141–154Google Scholar
  29. Rosati CS (2006) Moral motivation. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-motivation/Accessed October 2014
  30. Smith M (1994) The moral problem. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  31. Strawson PF (1968) Freedom and resentment. In: Strawson PF (ed) Studies in the Philosophy of Thought and Action. London Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  32. Strawson PF (1974) Freedom and resentment and other essays. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Wallace R J (1994) Responsibility and the moral sentiments. Harvard University Press, MAGoogle Scholar
  34. Warmke B (2011) Is forgiveness the deliberate refusal to punish. J Moral Philos 8(4):613–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Watson G (2004) Responsibility and the limits of evil. In agency and answerability: selected essays, Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  36. Williams B (1981) Moral Luck: philosophical Papers 1973-1980. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  37. Zaragoza K (2010) Forgiveness and standing. Philos Phenomenol Res 84(3):604–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Philosophy Department, CSMNOslo UniversityOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations