Relationships between informative school outreach and parental involvement for elementary and middle school children
Parental involvement is essential for children’s education. Several studies have examined relationships between parental involvement and parents’ socioeconomic status. However, less attention has been placed on school influences on parental involvement, even though schools play an important role in children’s education and can affect the parents as well. This study addressed the following question: Is informative outreach associated with parental involvement? What types of informative school outreach are strongly associated with parental involvement in elementary and middle school? The present study examined a nationally representative sample of elementary and middle school children in Japan (3939 fourth grade students from 140 schools and 4132 eighth grade students from 133 schools) from the Trends International Mathematics and Science Study 2011. The findings revealed that different types of informative school outreach have different associations depending on the school level. For the sample of elementary school children, informing parents about school was positively associated with home-based parental involvement. However, for the middle school children, informing parents about their child’s learning progress was positively associated with parental involvement.
KeywordsParental involvement School outreach TIMSS Elementary school Middle school Japan
I would like to thank Hisakazu Matsushigeand and Tetsuya Matsubayashi from Osaka University for their helpful comments.
- Benesse Educational Research and Development Institute. (2011). Dai 4kai kosodate seikatsu kihon chyosa (syo chyu ban) [Forth basic survey of nurturing and life (for elementary and middle school)]. Retrieved from http://berd.benesse.jp/shotouchutou/research/detail1.php?id=3278. Accessed 9 June 2017.
- Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Coleman, J. (1991). Parental involvement in education. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Coleman, J. S., & Hoffer, T. (1987). Public and private high schools: The impact of communities (Vol. 41). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Dauber, S., & Epstein, J. (1989). Parent attitudes and practices of parent involvement in inner-city elementary and middle schools. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University, Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools.Google Scholar
- Eccles, J. S., & Harold, R. D. (1996). Family involvement in children’s and adolescents’ schooling. In A. Booth & J. F. Dunn (Eds.), Family–school links: How do they affect educational outcomes? (pp. 3–34). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Epstein, J. L. (1987). Toward a theory of family–school connections: Teacher practices and parent involvement. In K. Hurrelmann, F.-X. Kaufmann, & F. Lösel (Eds.), Prevention and intervention in childhood and adolescence, 1. Social intervention: Potential and constraints (pp. 121–136). Oxford: Walter De Gruyter.Google Scholar
- Epstein, J. L. (1992). School and family partnerships. In M. Alkin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational research (pp. 1139–1151). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Epstein, J. L. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
- Epstein, J. L., & Sanders, M. G. (2000). Connecting home, school, and community in the 21st century: New directions for social research. In M. T. Hallinan (Ed.), Handbook of the sociology of education (pp. 285–306). New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
- Fantuzzo, J., McWayne, C., Perry, M. A., & Childs, S. (2004). Multiple dimensions of family involvement and their relations to behavioral and learning competencies for urban, low-income children. School Psychology Review, 33, 467–480.Google Scholar
- Holloway, S. D., Yamamoto, Y., Suzuki, S., & Mindnich, J. D. (2008). Determinants of parental involvement in early schooling: Evidence from Japan. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 10(1), n1.Google Scholar
- Honda, Y. (2008). Katei kyoiku no airo [Obstacles of home education]. Tokyo: Keiso Shobo.Google Scholar
- Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (1995). Parental involvement in children’s education: Why does it make a difference? Teachers College Record, 97, 310–331.Google Scholar
- McNeal, R. B., Jr. (2014). Parent involvement, academic achievement and the role of student attitudes and behaviors as mediators. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 2(8), 564–576.Google Scholar
- Ochanomizu University. (2015). Heisei 25 nendo zenkokugakuryoku gakushujyoukyou (kimekomakai chyosa) no kekka wo katuyoushita gakuryoku ni eikyo wo ataeru youinbunseki ni kansuru chyosa kenkyuu [Studies of factors that influence academic achievement using results of the national survey of academic achievement of 2013]. Retrieved from https://www.nier.go.jp/13chousakekkahoukoku/kannren_chousa/pdf/hogosha_factorial_experiment.pdf. Accessed 9 June 2017.
- Shimizu, K. (2009). Chikaranoaru gakkou no tankyu [In search of an effective school]. Osaka: Osaka University Press.Google Scholar
- Shimizu, K., Isa, N., Chinen, A., & Shibano, J. (2014). Chosa houkoku gakuryoku kakusa no jittai [Report on achievement gap]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
- Shumow, L., Lyutykh, E., & Schmidt, J. A. (2011). Predictors and outcomes of parental involvement with high school students in science. School Community Journal, 21, 81–98.Google Scholar
- Yamada, T. (2015). Dai 3 Sho Syakai Keizaiteki Haikei to Kodomo no Gakuryoku [Chapter 3: Socioeconomic background and children’s achievement]. In Ochanomizu University (2015). Heisei 25 nendo zenkokugakuryoku gakushujyoukyou (kimekomakai chyosa) no kekka wo katuyoushita gakuryoku ni eikyo wo ataeru youinbunseki ni kansuru chyosa kenkyuu [Studies of factors that influence academic achievement using results of the national survey of academic achievement of 2013] (pp. 107–123). Retrieved from https://www.nier.go.jp/13chousakekkahoukoku/kannren_chousa/pdf/hogosha_factorial_experiment.pdf. Accessed 8 Oct 2017.