Advertisement

Erkenntnis

pp 1–16 | Cite as

Mind-Brain Dichotomy, Mental Disorder, and Theory of Mind

  • Wesley BuckwalterEmail author
Original Research

Abstract

The tendency to draw mind-brain dichotomies and evaluate mental disorders dualistically arises in both laypeople and mental health professionals, leads to biased judgments, and contributes to mental health stigmatization. This paper offers a theory identifying an underlying source of these evaluations in social practice. According to this theory, dualistic evaluations are rooted in two mechanisms by which we represent and evaluate the beliefs of others in folk psychology and theory of mind: the doxastic conception of mental disorders and doxastic voluntarism. Tracing these origins contributes to our understanding of mental state representation in cognitive science and philosophy of psychiatry, the concept of belief in philosophy of mind, and may help improve patient experience and treatment in light of social stigmatization and bias toward mental illness.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Carolyn Buckwalter, Richard Dub, Edouard Machery, Heidi Maibom, David Rose, Şerife Tekin, and John Turri for helpful feedback on prior drafts. This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

References

  1. Alston, W. P. (1988). The deontological conception of epistemic justification. Philosophical Perspectives, 2, 257–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreasen, N. C. (1997). Linking mind and brain in the study of mental illnesses: A project for a scientific psychopathology. Science, 275(5306), 1586–1593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron-Cohen, S. (1996). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bartsch, K., & Wellman, H. M. (1995). Children talk about the mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bayne, T. (2010). Delusions as doxastic states: Contexts, compartments, and commitments. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 17(4), 329–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett, J. (1990). Why is belief involuntary? Analysis, 50(2), 87–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bortolotti, L., & Mameli, M. (2012). Self-deception, delusion and the boundaries of folk psychology. Humana Mente, 20, 203–221.Google Scholar
  9. Buckwalter, W. (2017). Ability, responsibility, and global justice. Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research, 34(3), 577–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buckwalter, W., & Turri, J. (2015). Inability and obligation in moral judgment. PLoS ONE.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136589.Google Scholar
  11. Byrne, P. (2001). Psychiatric stigma. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 178(3), 281–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coltheart, M. (2007). Cognitive neuropsychiatry and delusional belief. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (Hove), 60(8), 1041–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crandall, C. S., & Moriarty, D. (1995). Physical illness stigma and social rejection. British Journal of Social Psychology, 34(Pt 1), 67–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Descartes, R. (1644/1985), The principles of philosophy. In The philosophical writings of descartes (Vol. 1). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Egan, A. (2009). Imagination, delusion, and self-deception. In T. Bayne & J. Fernández (Eds.), Delusions, self-deception, and affective influences on belief-formation (pp. 263–280). Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  16. Gabbard, G. O. (2005). Mind, brain, and personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(4), 648–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Glasser, W. (1999). Choice theory: A new psychology of personal freedom. India: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  18. Hinshaw, S. P., & Stier, A. (2008). Stigma as related to mental disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4(1), 367–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hirstein, W., & Ramachandran, V. S. (1997). Capgras syndrome: A novel probe for understanding the neural representation of the identity and familiarity of persons. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 264(1380), 437–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hobbes, T. (1641). Third set of objections, by a famous English philosopher. In R. Ariew & D. Cress (Eds.), Meditations, objections, and replies (p. 100). Indianapolis: Hackett.Google Scholar
  21. James, W. (1948). The will to believe. In A. Castell (Ed.), Essays in pragmatism (pp. 88–109). New York: Hafner Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kandel, E. R. (1998). A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(4), 457–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kendler, K. S. (2001). A psychiatric dialogue on the mind-body problem. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(7), 989–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kendler, K. S. (2005). Toward a philosophical structure for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(3), 433–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kirmayer, L. J. (1988). Mind and body as metaphors: Hidden values in biomedicine. In M. Lock & D. Gordon (Eds.), Biomedicine examined (pp. 57–93). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leitan, N. D., & Murray, G. (2014). The mind-body relationship in psychotherapy: Grounded cognition as an explanatory framework. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lim, K.-L., Jacobs, P., & Dewa, C. (2008). How much should we spend on mental health? Economic Reports (Institute of Health Economics, https://www.ihe.ca/publications/how-much-should-we-spend-on-mental-health). Accessed 10 May 2014.
  28. Luhrmann, T. M. (2000). Of 2 minds: The growing disorder in American psychiatry. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  29. Malle, B. F. (2003). The social cognition of intentional action. In P. W. Halligan, C. Bass, & D. A. Oakley (Eds.), Malingering and illness deception (pp. 83–92). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Miresco, M. J., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2006). The persistence of mind-brain dualism in psychiatric reasoning about clinical scenarios. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(5), 913–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Perner, J. (1991). Understanding the representational mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  32. Raese, J. (2014). The pernicious effect of mind/body dualism in psychiatry. Journal of Psychiatry.  https://doi.org/10.4172/Psychiatry.1000219.Google Scholar
  33. Rose, D., Buckwalter, W., & Turri, J. (2014). When words speak louder than actions: Delusion, belief, and the power of assertion. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 92(4), 683–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rose, D., et al. (2017). Behavioral circumscription and the folk psychology of belief: A study in ethno-mentalizing. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy, 6(3), 193–203.Google Scholar
  35. Smetanin, P., Stiff, D., Briante, C., Adair, C. E., Ahmad, S., & Khan, M. T. (2011). The life and economic impact of major mental illnesses in Canada: 2011 to 2041. RiskAnalytica, on behalf of the Mental Health Commission of Canada 2011 (https://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/sites/default/files/MHCC_Report_Base_Case_FINAL_ENG_0_0.pdf). Accessed 10 May 2014.
  36. Tumulty, M. (2012). Delusions and not-quite-beliefs. Neuroethics, 5(1), 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Turri, J., Rose, D., & Buckwalter, W. (2017). Choosing and refusing: Doxastic voluntarism and folk psychology. Philosophical Studies.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-017-0970-x.Google Scholar
  38. Weiner, B., Perry, R. P., & Magnusson, J. (1988). An attributional analysis of reactions to stigmas. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(5), 738–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wellman, H. M. (1990). The child’s theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  40. Williams, B. (Ed.). (1973). Deciding to believe. In Problems of the self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of History and Philosophy of ScienceUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations