Finding the History and Philosophy of Science
History of science and philosophy of science have experienced a somewhat turbulent relationship over the last century. At times it has been said that philosophy needs history, or that history needs philosophy. Very occasionally, something entirely new is said to need them both. Often, however, their relationship is seen as little more than a marriage of convenience. This article explores that marriage by analyzing the citations of over 7,000 historians, philosophers, and sociologists of science. The data reveal that a small but tightly-knit bridge does exist between the disciplines, and raises suggestions about how to understand that bridge in a more nuanced fashion.
KeywordsScience Journal Latent Dirichlet Allocation Citation Count Bibliographic Coupling Citation Practice
This research was funded in part by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. I would like to thank Katy Börner, Jutta Schickore, Vincent Larivière, K. Brad Wray, and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions.
- Bastian, M., Heynmann, S., & Jacomy, M. (2009). Gephi: An Open source software for exploring and manipulating networks. In Presented at the international AAAI conference on weblogs and social media. Retrieved from http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/09/paper/view/154.
- Blei, D. M., Ng, A. Y., & Jordan, M. I. (2003). Latent dirichlet allocation. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3, 993–1022.Google Scholar
- Boyack, K. W., & Klavans, R. (2010). Co-citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, and direct citation: Which citation approach represents the research front most accurately? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(12), 2389–2404. doi: 10.1002/asi.21419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Feigl, H. (1970). Beyond peaceful coexistence. In Historical and philosophical perspectives of science (pp. 3–11). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Jardine, N. (2009). Philosophy of history of science. In A. Tucker (Ed.) A companion to the philosophy of history and historiography (pp. 285–296). New York: Wiley. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444304916.ch25/summary.
- Kant, I. (1781). Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Riga: Johann Friedrich Hartknoch.Google Scholar
- Koyre, A. (1955). Influence of philosophic trends on the formulation of scientific theories. The Scientific Monthly, 80(2), 107–111.Google Scholar
- Laudan, R. (1992). The “new” history of science: Implications for philosophy of science. In PSA: Proceedings of the biennial meeting of the philosophy of science association (pp. 476–481).Google Scholar
- McMullin, E. (1974). History and philosophy of science: A marriage of convenience? In PSA: Proceedings of the biennial meeting of the philosophy of science association (pp. 585–601).Google Scholar
- Reichenbach, H. (1938). Experience and prediction an analysis of the foundations and structure of knowledge.Google Scholar
- Richards, R. J. (1992). Arguments in a sartorial mode, or the asymmetries of history and philosophy of science. In PSA: Proceedings of the biennial meeting of the philosophy of science association (pp. 482–489).Google Scholar
- Salmon, W. C. (1963). Logic. The University of California: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Sci2 Team. (2009). Science of science (Sci2) tool. Indiana University and SciTech Strategies. Retrieved from http://sci2.cns.iu.edu.
- Smocovitis, V. B. (1994). Contextualizing science: From science studies to cultural studies. In PSA: Proceedings of the biennial meeting of the philosophy of science association (pp. 402–412).Google Scholar
- Weingart, S. B., Guo, H., Börner, K., Boyack, K. W., Linnemeier, M. W., & Duhon, R. J. (2011). Science of science (Sci2) tool user manual. Retrieved from http://sci2.wiki.cns.iu.edu.
- Wylie, A. (1994). Discourse, practice, context: From HPS to interdisciplinary science studies. In PSA: Proceedings of the biennial meeting of the philosophy of science association (pp. 393–395).Google Scholar