Erkenntnis

, Volume 72, Issue 3, pp 295–314 | Cite as

Analyticity and Possible-World Semantics

Original Article

Abstract

Standard approaches to possible-world semantics allow us to define necessity and logical truth, but analyticity is considerably more difficult to account for. The source of this difficulty lies in the received model-theoretical conception of a language interpretation. In intuitive terms, analyticity amounts to truth in virtue of meaning alone, i.e. solely in virtue of the interpretation of linguistic expressions. In other words, an analytic sentence should remain true under all variations of ‘extralinguistic reality’ as long as the interpretation is kept constant. However, the received conception of an interpretation as a mapping from language to a model frame hinders keeping the interpretation constant while varying other components of the model. To make room for analyticity, the concept of an interpretation should therefore be revised. The latter should be made richer in content than it has usually been assumed. As a by-product, this revision also gives us a one-dimensional analogue of the influential two-dimensional account of a priori. We are thus able to map out the network of formal connections between the notions of analyticity, apriority, logical truth and necessity.

References

  1. Boghossian, P. (1996). Analyticity reconsidered. Noûs, 30, 360–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boghossian, P. (1997). Analyticity. In B. Hale & C. Wright (Eds.), A companion to the philosophy of language (pp. 331–368). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Carnap, R. (1939). Foundations of logic and mathematics. In International Encyclopaedia of Unified Science, Vol. I, No. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  4. Carnap, R. (1942). Introduction to semantics. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Carnap, R. (1952). Meaning postulates. Philosophical Studies, 3, 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carnap, R. (1956). Meaning and necessity (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  7. Chalmers, D. (2004). Epistemic two-dimensional semantics. Philosophical Studies, 118, 153–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chalmers, D. (2006). Two-dimensional semantics. In E. Lepore & B. Smith (Eds.), Oxford handbook of the philosophy of language (pp. 574–606). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Davies, M., & Humberstone, L. (1980). Two notions of necessity. Philosophical Studies, 38, 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Evans, G. (1977). Reference and contingency. The Monist, 62(1977), 161–189.Google Scholar
  11. Frege, G. 1960 [1884]. The foundations of arithmetic (Trans. by J. L. Austin) (2nd revised ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  12. Glüer, K. & Pagin, P. (2007). Analyticity, modality, and general terms. In T. Rønnow-Rasumussen, B. Petersson, J. Josefsson & D. Egonsson (Eds.), Hommage à Wlodek: Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Wlodek Rabinowicz, http://www.fil.lu.se/hommageawlodek/site/papper/Gluer&Pagin.pdf.
  13. Harman, G. (1967). Quine on meaning and existence I. Review of Metaphysics, 21, 124–151.Google Scholar
  14. Hilpinen, R. (Ed.) (1970). Deontic logic: Introductory and systematic readings. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publ. Comp.Google Scholar
  15. Hylton, P. (2002). Analyticity and holism in Quine’s thought. The Harvard Review of Philosophy, 10, 11–26.Google Scholar
  16. Jackson, F. (1998). From metaphysics to ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Kanger, Stig. (1957). Provability in logic. Stockholm: Amqvist & Wiksell.Google Scholar
  18. Kanger, S. 1970 [1957]. New foundations for ethical theory. In Hilpinen R. (Ed.), Deontic logic: Introductory and systematic readings (pp. 36–58), Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publ. Comp.Google Scholar
  19. Kaplan, D. (1978). Dthat. In P. Cole (Ed.), Syntax and semantics: Pragmatics (Vol. 9, pp. 221–243). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  20. Kemeny, J. G. (1952) Review of “Two dogmas of empiricism” by W. V. Quine. Journal of Symbolic Logic, 17, 281–83.Google Scholar
  21. Kemeny, J. G. (1956). A new approach to semantics–part 1. Journal of Symbolic Logic, 21, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kripke, S. A. (1963). Semantical considerations on modal logic. Acta Philosophica Fennica, 16, 83–94.Google Scholar
  23. Kripke, S. A. (1980). Naming and necessity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lindström, S. (1998). An exposition and development of Kanger’s early semantics for modal logic. In P. Humphreys & J. Fetzer (Eds.), The new theory of reference (pp. 203–233). Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  25. Lindström, S. (2006). “A note on analyticity à la Rabinowicz and Aprioricity”, an appendix to Sten Lindström, “On the proper treatment of quantification in contexts of logical and metaphysical modalities”. In H. Lagerlund, S. Lindström & R. Sliwinski (Eds.), Modality matters: Twenty-five essays in honour of Krister Segerberg (pp. 316–320), Uppsala Philosophical Studies 53, Uppsala 2006.Google Scholar
  26. Lindström, S., & Segerberg, K. (2006). Modal logic and philosophy. In P. Blackburn, J. van Benthem, & F. Wolter (Eds.), Handbook of modal logic (pp. 1153–1218). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  27. Marcus, R. B. (1961). Modalities and intensional languages. Synthese, 13, 303–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Montague, R. (1974). Formal philosophy, edited by Thomason R. H. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Quine, W. V. (1951). Two dogmas of empiricism. The Philosophical Review, 60, 20–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Segerberg, K. (1973). Two-dimensional modal logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 2, 77–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Soames, S. (2005). Reference and description: The case against two-dimensionalism. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Stalnaker, R. (1978). Assertion. In P. Cole (Ed.), Syntax and semantics: Pragmatics (Vol. 9, pp. 197–213). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. Stalnaker, R. (2004). Assertion revisited: On the interpretation of two-dimensional modal semantics. Philosophical Studies, 118, 299–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Williamson, T. (2007). The philosophy of philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyLund UniversityLundSweden

Personalised recommendations