Environment Systems and Decisions

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 92–103 | Cite as

Energy use, blue water footprint, and greenhouse gas emissions for current food consumption patterns and dietary recommendations in the US

  • Michelle S. TomEmail author
  • Paul S. Fischbeck
  • Chris T. Hendrickson


This article measures the changes in energy use, blue water footprint, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shifting from current US food consumption patterns to three dietary scenarios, which are based, in part, on the 2010 USDA Dietary Guidelines (US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services in Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, 7th edn, US Government Printing Office, Washington, 2010). Amidst the current overweight and obesity epidemic in the USA, the Dietary Guidelines provide food and beverage recommendations that are intended to help individuals achieve and maintain healthy weight. The three dietary scenarios we examine include (1) reducing Caloric intake levels to achieve “normal” weight without shifting food mix, (2) switching current food mix to USDA recommended food patterns, without reducing Caloric intake, and (3) reducing Caloric intake levels and shifting current food mix to USDA recommended food patterns, which support healthy weight. This study finds that shifting from the current US diet to dietary Scenario 1 decreases energy use, blue water footprint, and GHG emissions by around 9 %, while shifting to dietary Scenario 2 increases energy use by 43 %, blue water footprint by 16 %, and GHG emissions by 11 %. Shifting to dietary Scenario 3, which accounts for both reduced Caloric intake and a shift to the USDA recommended food mix, increases energy use by 38 %, blue water footprint by 10 %, and GHG emissions by 6 %. These perhaps counterintuitive results are primarily due to USDA recommendations for greater Caloric intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy, and fish/seafood, which have relatively high resource use and emissions per Calorie.


Energy use Blue water footprint GHG emissions Food consumption Diet 



This project was supported by a Steinbrenner Institute US Environmental Sustainability Ph.D. Fellowship to Michelle Tom. The fellowship program is supported by a grant from the Colcom Foundation and by the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University.

Supplementary material

10669_2015_9577_MOESM1_ESM.docx (107 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 107 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil and Environmental EngineeringCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Engineering and Public Policy and Social and Decision SciencesCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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