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Environmentalist

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 227–236 | Cite as

Urban Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation for Agricultural Irrigation: The situation in Morocco and Palestine

  • D. Fatta
  • Z. Salem
  • M. Mountadar
  • O. Assobhei
  • M. Loizidou
Article

Abstract

As freshwater becomes increasingly scarce due to population growth, urbanisation and, probably, climate change, the use of wastewater in agriculture, aquaculture, groundwater recharge and in other areas will increase. In some cases, wastewater is the only water resource available to poor, subsistence-level farming communities. Although there are benefits to using wastewater in agriculture—such as better nutrition and food security for many households—uncontrolled use of wastewater is frequently associated with significant negative human health impacts. These health impacts can be minimized when good management practices are implemented. In this paper the existing situation, in relation to water resources availability, wastewater treatment and reuse in Morocco and Palestine, is presented.

water scarcity wastewater treatment wastewater reclamation irrigation health impacts Morocco Palestine 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Fatta
    • 1
  • Z. Salem
    • 2
  • M. Mountadar
    • 3
  • O. Assobhei
    • 4
  • M. Loizidou
    • 5
  1. 1.Civil and Environmental Engineering DepartmentUniversity of CyprusNicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.The Palestinian Environmental Quality AuthorityMinistry of Environmental AffairsGaza
  3. 3.Laboratory of Water and EnvironmentUniversity of Chouaib DoukkaliEl JadidaMorocco
  4. 4.Laboratory of Applied Microbiology and BiotechnologyUniversity of Chouaib DoukkaliEl JadidaMorocco
  5. 5.School of Chemical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensGreece

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