An integrated approach for mapping groundwater potential applying geospatial and MIF techniques in the semiarid region

  • 38 Accesses


Geospatial methods play an important role in the identification, monitoring, assessment, and conservation of groundwater resources. An integrated approach combining the geospatial techniques and multi-influencing factors (MIF) was adapted for the determination of potential groundwater zone in the Purulia District of West Bengal, Eastern India. The present groundwater is underexploited for agricultural and other activities. This study would also benefit in identifying the artificial recharge zone for further research and developmental activity in the region. The important parameters including slope, landuse/cover, lineament, drainage, geology, and soil affecting potential groundwater occurrence were generated from Topo Maps, Landsat remote sensing imagery, and various ancillary data. Various thematic layers were allocated a fixed score as weightage using MIF technique. Thereafter, the weighted layers were statistically computed in the overlay analysis to generate the groundwater prospect map. The groundwater potential map demonstrated five zones, viz. very good (13.8%), good (34.9%), moderate (48.3%), poor (2.8%), and very poor (0.2%). The findings of the research study would enable to carry out future research and propose effective planning and management of groundwater development.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10


  1. Acharya, T., & Nag, S. K. (2013). Study of groundwater prospects of the crystalline rocks in Purulia District, West Bengal, India using remote sensing data. Earth Resources,1(2), 54–59.

  2. Acharya, T., Nag, S. K., & Mallik, S. B. (2012). Hydraulic significance of fracture correlated lineaments in precambrian rocks in Purulia District, West Bengal. Journal of the Geological Society of India,80(5), 723–730.

  3. Adiat, K. A. N., Nawawi, M. N. M., & Abdullah, K. (2012). Assessing the accuracy of GIS-based elementary multi criteria decision analysis as a spatial prediction tool—A case of predicting potential zones of sustainable groundwater resources. Journal of Hydrology,440, 75–89.

  4. Agarwal, E., Agarwal, R., Garg, R. D., & Garg, P. K. (2013). Delineation of groundwater potential zone—An AHP/ANP approach. Journal of Earth System Science,122(3), 887–898.

  5. Ayazi, M. H., Pirasteh, S., Arvin, A. K. P., Pradhan, B., Nikouravan, B., & Mansor, S. (2010). Disasters and risk reduction in groundwater: Zagros mountain southwest Iran using geo-informatics techniques. Disaster Advances,3(1), 51–57.

  6. CGWB. (2014). Dynamic groundwater resources of India (as on March 2011). New Delhi: Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), Government of India.

  7. CGWB. (2019). National compilation on dynamic ground water resources of India (p. 298). Faridabad, India: Central Ground Water Board.

  8. Chowdhury, A., Jha, M. K., & Chowdary, V. M. (2010). Delineation of groundwater recharge zones and identification of artificial recharge sites in West Medinipur district, West Bengal, using RS, GIS and MCDM techniques. Environmental Earth Science, 59, 1209–1222.

  9. Chowdhury, A., Jha, M. K., Chowdary, V. M., & Mal, B. C. (2009). Integrated remote sensing and GIS-based approach for assessing groundwater potential in west Medinipur district, west Bengal, India. International Journal of Remote Sensing,30(1), 231–250.

  10. Directorate of Economics and Statistics (DES). (2015). Department of agriculture, cooperation and farmer welfare. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare, Government of India. Retrieved November 19, 2016 from

  11. Doell, P., Schmied, H. M., Schuh, C., Portmann, F. T., & Eicker, A. (2014). Global-scale assessment of groundwater depletion and related groundwater abstractions: Combining hydrological modeling with information from well observations and GRACE satellites. Water Resources Research,50(7), 5698–5720.

  12. Elewa, H. H., & Qaddah, A. A. (2011). Groundwater potentiality mapping in the Sinai peninsula, Egypt, using remote sensing and GIS-watershed based modeling. Hydrogeology Journal,19(3), 613–628.

  13. Elmahdy, S. I., & Mohamed, M. M. (2014). Groundwater potential modelling using remote sensing and GIS: A case study of the Al Dhaid area, United Arab Emirates. Geocarto International,29(2), 433–450.

  14. Elmahdy, S. I., & Mohamed, M. M. (2015). Probabilistic frequency ratio model for groundwater potential mapping in Al Jaww plain, UAE. Arabian Journal of Geosciences,8(4), 2405–2416.

  15. Ghosh, K. P., Bandyopadhyay, S., & Jana, N. C. (2015). Mapping of groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain using geoinformatics: A case of Kumari watershed in western part of West Bengal. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment,2, 1.

  16. Gumma, M. K., & Pavelic, P. (2013). Mapping of groundwater potential zones across Ghana using remote sensing, geographic information systems, and spatial modelling. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,185(4), 3561–3579.

  17. Gupta, M., & Srivastava, P. K. (2010). Integrating GIS and remote sensing for identification of groundwater potential zones in the hilly terrain of Pavagarh, Gujarat, India. Water International,35(2), 233–245.

  18. Jasrotia, A. S., Bhagat, B. D., Kumar, A., & Kumar, R. (2013). Remote sensing and GIS approach for delineation of groundwater potential and groundwater quality zones of Western Doon valley, Uttarakhand, India. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing,41(2), 365–377.

  19. Jenifer, M. A., & Jha, M. K. (2017). Comparison of analytic hierarchy process, Catastrophe and entropy techniques for evaluating groundwater prospect of hard-rock aquifer systems. Journal of Hydrology,548, 605–624.

  20. Jha, M. K., Chowdary, V. M., & Chowdhury, A. (2010). Groundwater assessment in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques. Hydrogeology Journal,18(7), 1713–1728.

  21. Jha, M. K., Chowdary, V. M., Kulkarni, Y., & Mal, B. C. (2014). Rainwater harvesting planning using geospatial techniques and multicriteria decision analysis. Resources, Conservation and Recycling,83, 96–111.

  22. Kumar, A., & Pandey, A. C. (2016). Geoinformatics based groundwater potential assessment in hard rock terrain of Ranchi urban environment, Jharkhand state (India) using MCDM–AHP techniques. Groundwater for Sustainable Development,2(3), 27–41.

  23. Machiwal, D., Jha, M. K., & Mal, B. C. (2011). Assessment of groundwater potential in a semi-arid region of India using remote sensing, GIS and MCDM techniques. Water Resources Management,25(5), 1359–1386.

  24. Machiwal, D., Rangi, N., & Sharma, A. (2015). Integrated knowledge and data-driven approaches for groundwater potential zoning using GIS and multi-criteria decision making techniques on hard-rock terrain of Ahar catchment, Rajasthan, India. Environmental Earth Sciences,73(4), 1871–1892.

  25. Magesh, N. S., Chandrasekar, N., & Soundranayagam, J. P. (2012). Delineation of groundwater potential zones in theni district, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing, GIS and MIF techniques. Geoscience Frontiers,3(2), 189–196.

  26. Malczewski, J. (1999). GIS and multi-criteria decision analysis (pp. 859–860). New York: Wiley.

  27. Mallick, J., Singh, C. K., Al-Wadi, H., Ahmed, M., Rahman, A., Shashtri, S., et al. (2015). Geospatial and geostatistical approach for groundwater potential zone delineation. Hydrological Processes,29(3), 395–418.

  28. Manap, M. A., Nampak, H., Pradhan, B., Lee, S., Sulaiman, W. N. A., & Ramli, M. F. (2014). Application of probabilistic-based frequency ratio model in groundwater potential mapping using remote sensing data and GIS. Arabian Journal of Geosciences,7(2), 711–724.

  29. Mukherjee, A., Saha, D., Harvey, C. F., Taylor, R. G., Ahmed, K. M., & Bhanja, S. N. (2015). Groundwater systems of the Indian sub-continent. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies,4, 1–14.

  30. Mukherjee, P., Singh, C. K., & Mukherjee, S. (2012). Delineation of groundwater potential zones in arid region of India—A remote sensing and GIS approach. Water Resources Management,26(9), 2643–2672.

  31. Nampak, H., Pradhan, B., & Manap, M. A. (2014). Application of GIS based data driven evidential belief function model to predict groundwater potential zonation. Journal of Hydrology,513, 283–300.

  32. O’Leary, D. W., Friedman, J. D., & Poh, H. A. (1976). Lineaments, linear, lineations: Some standards for old terms. Geological Society of America Bulletin,87(10), 1463–1469.

  33. Rahmati, O., Nazari Samani, A., Mahmoodi, N., & Mahdavi, M. (2014). Assessment of the contribution of N-fertilizers to nitrate pollution of groundwater in western Iran (Case Study: Ghorveh-Dehgelan Aquifer). Water Quality, Exposure and Health,7(2), 143–151.

  34. Rahmati, O., Samani, A. N., Mahdavi, M., Pourghasemi, H. R., & Zeinivand, H. (2015). Groundwater potential mapping at Kurdistan region of Iran using analytic hierarchy process and GIS. Arabian Journal of Geosciences,8(9), 7059–7071.

  35. Sahoo, S., Jha, M. K., Kumar, N., & Chowdary, V. M. (2015). Evaluation of GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis and probabilistic modeling for exploring groundwater prospect. Environmental Earth Sciences,74(3), 2223–2246.

  36. Selvam, G., Banukumar, K., Srinivasan, D., Selvakumar, R., & Alaguraja, P. (2012). Identification of ground water potential zone in hard rock terrain—A case study from parts of Manapparai block Tamilnadu using remote sensing and GIS techniques. International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing & GIS,1(1), 8–18.

  37. Selvam, S., Magesh, N. S., Sivasubramanian, P., Soundranayagam, J. P., Manimaran, G., & Seshunarayana, T. (2014). Deciphering of groundwater potential zones in Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Journal of the Geological Society of India,84(5), 597–608.

  38. Shaban, A., Khawlie, M., & Abdallah, C. (2006). Use of remote sensing and GIS to determine recharge potential zone: The case of Occidental Lebanon. Hydrogeology Journal,14(4), 433–443.

  39. Singh, C. K., Shashtri, S., Singh, A., & Mukherjee, S. (2011). Quantitative modeling of groundwater in Satluj river basin of Rupnagar district of Punjab using remote sensing and geographic information system. Environmental Earth Sciences,62(4), 871–881.

  40. Suhag, R. (2016). Overview of ground water in India, New Delhi, India: PRS Legislative Research.

  41. Tiwari, V. M., Wahr, J., & Swenson, S. (2009). Dwindling groundwater resources in Northern India from satellite gravity observations. Geophysical Research Letters,36(18), 1–5.

  42. World Bank. (2010). Deep wells and prudence: Towards pragmatic action for addressing groundwater overexploitation in India. World Bank Report-51676, Washington, D.C.

Download references


Authors are grateful to the Geological Survey of India (GSI), Survey of India, Central Groundwater Board (CGWB), National Bureau of Soil Survey and Landuse Planning, Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) for providing the required data for the present research. We thank the editor and reviewers for reviewing the manuscript and for their valuable comments.

Author information

Correspondence to Sandipan Das.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bhattacharya, S., Das, S., Das, S. et al. An integrated approach for mapping groundwater potential applying geospatial and MIF techniques in the semiarid region. Environ Dev Sustain (2020).

Download citation


  • Geospatial technologies
  • Groundwater potential mapping
  • MIF
  • Water resource management