Advertisement

On interaction of the energy: Human capital Kuznets curve? A case for technology innovation

  • Nadia Hanif
  • Noman ArshedEmail author
  • Osama Aziz
Article
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

On the eve of depleting energy resources and global warming, there is a sincere push by OECD and other economies toward the sustainable energy consumption. This change of perception is mainly coined with the aim to change in attitude of people for the posterity. This study sets to evaluate the effect of development in human capital on the selection of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption. Further, this study put insights into the interaction effect of technology innovation to propose an early turning point for the energy—human capital Kuznets curve for OECD and non-OECD emerging countries. Panel FGLS model confirms the presence of the Kuznets curve for both OECD and non-OECD emerging countries, and there is an evidence of the supportive moderating role of technology innovation. Further practical implications are discussed.

Keywords

Energy sustainability Human Development Index (HDI) Oil prices Exchange rate 

JEL Classification

O3 Q2 Q3 

Notes

References

  1. Acemogl, D., Aghion, P., Bursztyn, L., & Hemous, D. (2012). The environment and directed technical change. American Economic Review,102(1), 131–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ackermann, T., Andersson, G., & Söder, L. (2001). Distributed generation: A definition. Electric Power Systems Research,57(3), 195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akbostancı, E., Türüt-Aşık, S., & Tunç, Gİ. (2009). The relationship between income and environment in Turkey: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve? Energy Policy,37(3), 861–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akinlo, A. E. (2008). Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from 11 Sub-Sahara African countries. Energy Economics,30(5), 2391–2400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anand, J., & Kogut, B. (1997). Technological capabilities of countries, firm rivalry and foreign direct investment. Journal of International Business Studies,28(3), 445–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ang, J. B., & Madsen, J. B. (2011). Can second-generation endogenous growth models explain the productivity trends and knowledge production in the Asian miracle economies? Review of Economics and Statistics,93(4), 1360–1373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anjum, A., & Butt, M. S. (2001). The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Pakistan. Asia-Pacific Development Journal,8(2), 101–110.Google Scholar
  8. Antony, G. M., Rao, V. K., & Balakrishna, N. (2001). Suitability of HDI for assessing health and nutritional status. Economic and Political weekly,36(31), 2976–2979.Google Scholar
  9. Apergis, N., & Payne, J. E. (2010). Structural breaks and petroleum consumption in US states: Are shocks transitory or permanent? Energy Policy,38(10), 6375–6378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Apergis, N., & Payne, J. E. (2012). Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption-growth nexus: Evidence from a panel error correction model. Energy Economics,34(3), 733–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arbex, M., & Perobelli, F. S. (2010). Solow meets Leontief: Economic growth and energy consumption. Energy Economics,32(1), 43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Armaroli, N., & Balzani, V. (2007). The future of energy supply: Challenges and opportunities. Angewandte Chemie International Edition,46, 52–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aslan, A. (2011). Does natural gas consumption follow a nonlinear path over time? Evidence from 50 US States. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,15(9), 4466–4469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Auty, R. M. (2001). Resource abundance and economic development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Beck, N., & Katz, J. N. (1995). What to do (and not to do) with time-series cross-section data. American Political Science Review,83(3), 634–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benos, N., & Zotou, S. (2014). Education and economic growth: A meta-regression analysis. World Development,64, 669–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bernard, J.-T., Gavin, M., Khalaf, L., & Voia, M. (2015). Environmental Kuznets curve: Tipping points, uncertainty and weak identification. Environmental & Resource Economics,60(2), 285–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berry, H., Guillén, M. F., & Zhou, N. (2010). An institutional approach to cross-national distance. Journal of International Business Studies,41(9), 1460–1480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. British Petroleum. (2017). Statistical review of world energy. Retrieved July 24, 2017 from https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy.html.
  20. Broadstock, D. C., Li, J., & Zhang, D. (2016). Efficiency snakes and energy ladders: A (meta-) frontier demand analysis of electricity consumption efficiency in Chinese households. Energy Policy,91, 383–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Candemir, M. (2013). Oil price movements and macroeconomic variables: Evidence from high and upper middle income countries. (Master of Science in Economics), Eastern Mediterranean University.Google Scholar
  22. Cayla, J.-M., Maizi, N., & Marchand, C. (2011). The role of income in energy consumption behaviour: Evidence from French households data. Energy Policy,39(2), 7874–7883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chakravorty, U., & Tse, K. (2000). Transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy: Evidence from a dynamic simulation model with endogenous resource substitution. Working paper.Google Scholar
  24. Chen, W., & Lei, Y. (2018). The impacts of renewable energy and technological innovation on environment-energy-growth nexus: New evidence from a panel quantile regression. Renewable Energy,123, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. David, L. (2012). Energy sources pros and cons. Retrieved February 18, 2019 from www.readinga-z.com.
  26. Davidson, R., & MacKinnon, G. J. (1993). Estimation and inference in econometrics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Démurger, S., & Fournier, M. (2011). Poverty and firewood consumption: A case study of rural households in northern China. China Economic Review,22(4), 512–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Destek, M. A., & Aslan, A. (2017). Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in emerging economies: Evidence from bootstrap panel causality. Renewable Energy,111, 757–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Doğan, B., & Değer, O. (2018). The role of economic growth and energy consumption on CO2 emissions in E7 countries. Theoretical and Applied Economics,25(2(615)), 231–246.Google Scholar
  30. Doytch, N., & Narayan, S. (2016). Does FDI influence renewable energy consumption? An analysis of sectoral FDI impact on renewable and non-renewable industrial energy consumption. Energy Economics,54, 291–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dunn, R. M., Jr., & Mutti, J. H. (2004). International economics (6th ed.). London: Roultege.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. FactMonster. (2019). Types of energy. Retrieved March 27, 2019 from https://www.factmonster.com/cite-page.
  33. Fang, Z., & Chang, Y. (2016). Energy, human capital and economic growth in Asia Pacific countries—Evidence from a panel cointegration and causality analysis. Energy Economics,56, 177–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fang, Z., Chang, Y., & Shigeyuki, H. (2017). Energy and human capital: A driver or drag for economic growth. The Singapore Economic Review.  https://doi.org/10.1142/S0217590817500163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fang, Z., & Chen, Y. (2017). Human capital and energy in economic growth—Evidence from Chinese provincial data. Energy Economics,68, 340–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fang, Z., & Yu, J. (2018). The role of human capital in energy-growth nexus: An international evidence. Empirical Economics.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00181-018-1559-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fisher-Vanden, K., Jefferson, G. H., Liu, H., & Tao, Q. (2004). What is driving China’s decline in energy intensity? Resource and Energy Economics,26(1), 77–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Friel, S., Dangour, A. D., Garnett, T., Lock, K., Chalabi, Z., Roberts, I., et al. (2009). Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse–gas emissions: Food and agriculture. The Lancet,374(9706), 2016–2025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gabriel, C.-A., Kirkwood, J., Walton, S., & Rose, E. L. (2016). How do developing country constraints affect renewable energy entrepreneurs? Energy for Sustainable Development,35, 52–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hanif, N., & Arshed, N. (2016). Relationship between school education and economic growth: SAARC countries. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues,6(1), 294–300.Google Scholar
  41. Hassan, M. S., Bukhari, S., & Arshed, N. (2019). Competitiveness, governance and globalization: What matters for poverty alleviation? Environment, Development and Sustainability, Online First, 1–28.Google Scholar
  42. Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  43. Haymes, A., & Byrnes, G. (2011). Sustainability limitations of ‘renewable’ energy. Retrieved February 18, 2019 from www.sage.org/journals.
  44. He, X., & Reiner, D. (2016). Electricity demand and basic needs: Empirical evidence from China’s households. Energy Policy,90, 212–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hsu, S.-L. (2017). Capital transitioning: A human capital strategy for climate innovation. Transnational Environmental Law. 2019. Retrieved July 12, 2016 from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2804841.
  46. Hussain, T., & Siddiqui, A. (2005). Prospects of renewable energy technologies in Pakistan. Paper presented at the International conference on environmentally sustainable development.Google Scholar
  47. Hussaini, I. U., & Majid, N. H. A. (2014). Human behavior in household energy use and the implications of energy efficiency delivery: A case of Bauchi, Nigeria. International Journal of Energy Sector Management,8(2), 230–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Inglesi-Lotz, R., & Dogan, E. (2018). The role of renewable versus non-renewable energy to the level of CO2 emissions a panel analysis of sub-Saharan Africa’s Βig 10 electricity generators. Renewable Energy,123, 36–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. International Energy Agency. (2008). Worldwide trends in energy uses and efficiency. Paris: IEA Head of Communication and Information Office.Google Scholar
  50. International Renewable Energy Agency. (2013). Renewable power generation costs database. Abu Dhabi: IRENA.Google Scholar
  51. International Energy Agency. (2015). Energy balances of OECD countries. Retrieved from https://www.iea.org/statistics/relateddatabases/energybalancesofoecdcountries/. Accessed 2 Jan 2019.
  52. International Renewable Energy Agency. (2016). Renewable energy, efficient energy use. Abu Dhabi: IRENA.Google Scholar
  53. Jennings, P., & Lund, C. (2001). Renewable energy education for sustainable development. Renewable Energy,22(1–3), 113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johansson, P.-O., & Kriström, B. (2007). On a clear day you might see an environmental Kuznets curve. Environmental & Resource Economics,37(1), 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kahia, M., Aïssa, M. S. B., & Lanouar, C. (2017). Renewable and non-renewable energy use-economic growth nexus: The case of MENA net oil importing countries. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,71, 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kaldellis, J. K., & Kapsali, M. (2013). Shifting towards offshore wind energy—Recent activity and future development. Energy Policy,53, 136–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kalim, R., Arshed, N., & Shaheen, S. (2019). Does competitiveness moderates inclusive growth: A panel study of low-income countries. Competitiveness Review,29(2), 119–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kandpal, T. C., & Broman, L. (2014). Renewable energy education: A global status review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,34, 300–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kargbo, A. A., Ding, Y., & Kargbo, M. (2016). Financial development, human capital and economic growth: New evidence from Sierra Leone. Journal of Finance and Bank Management,4(1), 49–67.Google Scholar
  60. Katircioğlu, S. T. (2014). Estimating higher education induced energy consumption: The case of Northern Cyprus. Energy,66, 831–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Katircioglu, S. T., Sertoglu, K., Candemir, M., & Mercan, M. (2015). Oil price movements and macroeconomics performance: Evidence from twenty-six OECD. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,44, 257–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ke, W., Shiwei, Y., & Wei, Z. (2013). China’s regional energy and environmental efficiency: A DEA window analysis based dynamic evaluation. Mathematical and Computer Modelling,58(5–6), 1117–1127.Google Scholar
  63. Kinab, E., & Elkhoury, M. (2012). Renewable energy use in Lebanon: Barriers and solutions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,16(7), 4422–4431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kuznets, S. S. (1955). Economic growth and income inequality. The American Economic Review,45(1), 1–28.Google Scholar
  65. Kuznets, S. S. (1979). Growth, population, and income distribution: Selected essays. Mountain View: Norton.Google Scholar
  66. Kuznets, S. (1995). Economic growth and income inequality. The American Economic Review, 49(1), 1–28.Google Scholar
  67. Lau, L. J., Jamison, D. T., & Louat, F. F. (1991). Education and productivity in developing countries: An aggregate production function approach, 2019. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/720681468739788036/Education-and-productivity-in-developing-countries-an-aggregate-production-function-approach. Accessed 2 Jan 2019.
  68. Lee, G., Park, S., Lee, D., Park, F. C., Jeong, J. I., & Kim, J. (2015). Minimizing energy consumption of parallel mechanisms via redundant actuation. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics,20(6), 2805–2812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li, K., & Lin, B. (2016). Impact of energy technology patents in China: Evidence from a panel cointegration and error correction model. Energy Policy,89, 214–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lim, A. S. K., & Tang, K. K. (2008). Human capital inequality and the Kuznets curve. The Developing Economies,XLVI(1), 26–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lind, N. C. (1992). Some thoughts on the human development index. Social Indicators Research,27(1), 89–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lindstad, H., Asbjørnslett, B. E., & Strømman, A. H. (2011). Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and cost by shipping at lower speeds. Energy Policy,39(6), 3456–3464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lutz, W., Muttarak, R., & Striessnig, E. (2014). Universal education is key to enhanced climate adaptation. Science,346(6213), 1061–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Maddala, G. S., & Lahiri, K. (2006). Introduction to econometrics (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  75. Marques, A. C., & Fuinhas, J. A. (2011). Drivers promoting renewable energy: A dynamic panel approach. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,16(3), 1601–1608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Matsuo, M., & Tomoda, Y. (2012). Human capital Kuznets curve with subsistence consumption level. Economic Letters,116(3), 392–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mehrara, M., Rezaei, S., & Razi, D. H. (2015). Determinants of renewable energy consumption among ECO countries; based on Bayesian model averaging and weighted-average least square. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences,54, 96–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Morrisson, C., & Murtin, F. (2013). The Kuznets curve of human capital inequality: 1870–2010. The Journal of Economic Inequality,11(3), 283–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Narayan, P. K., Narayan, S., & Popp, S. (2010). Energy consumption at the state level: The unit root null hypothesis from Australia. Applied Energy,87(6), 1953–1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nasir, M., & Rehman, F. U. (2011). Environmental Kuznets curve for carbon emissions in Pakistan: An empirical investigation. Energy Policy,39(3), 1857–1864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2012). OECD green growth studies: Linking renewable energy to rural development. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/regional/linkingrenewableenergytoruraldevelopment.htm. Accessed 2 Jan 2019.
  82. Ouedraogo, N. S. (2013). Energy consumption and human development: Evidence from a panel cointegration and error correction model. Energy,63, 28–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Owusu, P. A., & Asumadu-Sarkodie, S. (2016). A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation. Cogent Engineering,3(11), 679–690.Google Scholar
  84. Özçiçek, Ö., & Ağpak, F. (2017). The role of education on renewable energy use: Evidence From Poisson pseudo maximum likelihood estimations. Journal of Business & Economic Policy,4(4), 49–61.Google Scholar
  85. Özokcu, S., & Özdemir, Ö. (2017). Economic growth, energy, and environmental Kuznets curve. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,72, 639–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ozturk, I., & Al-Mulali, U. (2015). Natural gas consumption and economic growth nexus: Panel data analysis for GCC countries. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,51, 998–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pablo-Romero, M. D. P., & Sánchez-Braza, A. (2015). Productive energy use and economic growth: Energy, physical and human capital relationships. Energy Economics,49, 420–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pachauri, S., & Jiang, L. (2008). The household energy transition in India and China. Energy Policy,36(11), 4022–4035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Payne, E. J. (2011). On biomass energy consumption and real output in the US. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy,6(1), 47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Payne, J. E. (2009). On the dynamics of energy consumption and output in the US. Applied Energy,86(4), 575–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pfeiffer, B., & Mulder, P. (2013). Explaining the diffusion of renewable energy technology in developing countries. Energy Economics,40, 285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Popp, D., Hascic, I., & Medhi, N. (2011). Technology and diffusion of renewable energy. Energy Economics,33(4), 648–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rati, R. (1990). Educational expansion and schooling inequality: International evidence and some implications. The Review of Economics and Statistics,71(2), 266–274.Google Scholar
  94. Reddy, S., & Painuly, J. P. (2004). Diffusion of renewable energy technologies—Barriers and stakeholders’ perspectives. Renewable Energy,29(9), 1431–1447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ruhul, S., Yao, Y., & Chen, G. S. (2017). Does human capital matter for energy consumption in China? Energy Economics,67, 49–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sadorsky, P. (2009). Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries. Energy Economics,31(3), 456–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sadorsky, P. (2010). The impact of financial development on energy consumption in emerging economies. Energy Policy,38(5), 2528–2535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Salim, R. A., Hassan, K., & Shafiei, S. (2014). Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic activities: Further evidence from OECD countries. Energy Economics,44, 350–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sari, R., & Soytas, U. (2004). Disaggregate energy consumption, employment and income in Turkey. Energy Economics,26(3), 335–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schneider, F., Kallis, G., & Martinez-Alier, J. (2010). Crisis or opportunity? Economic degrowth for social equity and ecological sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production,18(6), 511–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schulte, P., Welsch, H., & Rexhäuser, S. (2016). ICT and the demand for energy: Evidence from OECD countries. Environmental & Resource Economics,63(1), 119–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Seetharaman, A., Sandanara, L. L., Moorthy, M. K., & Saranan, A. S. (2016). Enterprise framework for renewable energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,54, 1368–1381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Shaei, K., Adaoglu, C., & Katircioglu, T. S. (2016). Oil price risk exposure: A comparison of financial and non-financial subsectors. Energy,109, 712–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Shahbaz, M., Mutascu, M., & Azim, P. (2013). Environmental Kuznets curve in Romania and the role of energy consumption. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,18, 165–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Shahzad, U. (2015). The need for renewable energy. Information Technology & Electrical Engineering,2, 16–18.Google Scholar
  106. Shaver, J. M., & Flyer, F. (2000). Agglomeration economies, firm heterogeneity and foreign direct investment in the United States. Strategic Management Journal,21(12), 1175–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sodeyfi, S., & Katircioglu, S. (2016). Interactions between business conditions, economic growth and crude oil prices. Economic Research,29(1), 980–990.Google Scholar
  108. Soyemi, K. A., Akingunola, R. O.-O., & Ogebe, J. (2017). Effects of oil price shock on stock returns of energy firms in Nigeria. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 30, 1–8.Google Scholar
  109. Stern, N. (2006). What is the economics of the climate change? World Economics,7(2), 1–10.Google Scholar
  110. Tao, S., Zheng, T., & Lianjun, T. (2008). An empirical test of the environmental Kuznets curve in China: A panel cointegration approach. China Economic Review,19(3), 381–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Thomas, V., Wang, Y., & Fan, X. (1999). Measuring education inequality: Gini coefficients of education. The World Bank.Google Scholar
  112. Tugcu, C. T., Ozturk, I., & Aslan, A. (2012). Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth relationship revisited: Evidence from G7 countries. Energy Economics,34(6), 1942–1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. U.S Energy Information Administration. (2017). International energy outlook 2017. Retrieved July 30, 2017 from https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/ieo/.
  114. Wang, Q., Wu, S.-D., Zeng, Y.-E., & Wu, B.-W. (2016). Exploring the relationship between urbanization, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in different provinces of China. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,54, 1563–1579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wilson, C., & Tyfield, D. (2018). Critical perspectives on disruptive innovation and energy transformation. Energy Research & Social Science,37, 211–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yang, L., Wang, J., & Shi, J. (2017). Can China meet its 2020 economic growth and carbon emissions reduction targets? Journal of Cleaner Production,142, 993–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Yeager, K., Dayo, F., Fisher, B., Fouquet, R., Gilau, A., & Rogner, H. H. (2012). Energy and economy. Global energy assessment—Toward a sustainable future. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Zaman, K., Shahbaz, M., Loganathan, N., & Raza, S. A. (2016). Tourism development, energy consumption and environmental Kuznets curve: Trivariate analysis in the panel of developed and developing countries. Tourism Management,54, 275–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhang, B., Wang, B., & Wang, Z. (2017). Role of renewable energy and non-renewable energy consumption on EKC: Evidence from Pakistan. Journal of Cleaner Production,156, 855–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zhao, Z.-Y., Sun, G.-Z., Zuo, J., & Zillante, G. (2013). The impact of international forces on the Chinese wind power industry. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,24, 131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of International Business and EconommicsBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of Management and TechnologyLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Ryerson UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations