Advertisement

Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 3077–3092 | Cite as

Tropical cyclone damages in Mainland China over 2005–2016: losses analysis and implications

  • Hong Wang
  • Min Xu
  • Anselem Onyejuruwa
  • Yanjun Wang
  • Shanshan Wen
  • Andrew E. Gao
  • Yubin LiEmail author
Article
  • 80 Downloads

Abstract

This study analyzed the annual variation and provincial distribution of the number of landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs) and the associated losses in respect of direct economic losses, collapsed buildings, casualties, evacuated population, affected population, and the affected agricultural area in mainland China during 2005–2016. The numbers of western North Pacific TCs and landfall TCs were 24 and 7.5, respectively. The annual mean losses of TC disasters included 36.7 million affected people, 69.5 billion Yuan direct economic losses, and 254 deaths. For an average landfalling TC, the numbers were 4.9 million people, 9.3 billion Yuan, and 33.9 deaths, respectively. Most of the damages were caused by the small numbers of destructive TCs, and the top 10 TCs contributed to 48% of direct economic losses, 71% of deaths, and 66% of building damages. Among the provinces affected by TC disasters, Zhejiang, Guangdong, and Fujian took the majority of the losses. Nevertheless, the casualties per landfalling TC were highest in Hunan (63.3 deaths), while mortalities (the rate of casualties to the evacuated population) in Henan (200.0 per 105 persons) and Yunnan (116.7 per 105 persons) were significantly higher than the other provinces (below 30 per 105 persons), indicating more population needed to be evacuated in future TC disasters in these provinces. The larger the number of landfalling TCs in a year or higher the wind force scale of a landfalling TC did not necessary lead to larger losses. However, stronger rainfall and/or a northeast-recurving track played a role in increasing the TC disaster losses.

Keywords

Annual variation Influential factors Mainland China Provincial distribution Tropical cyclone disaster 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC1506405), the National Program on Global Change and Air-Sea Interaction (GASI-IPOVAI-04) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41675009). The authors thank the China Meteorological Administration for providing the tropical cyclone best-track dataset and the tropical cyclone disaster data. We also appreciate the National Bureau of Statistics of China and EconStats for the GDP data.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Camargo, S. J., & Sobel, A. H. (2005). Western North Pacific tropical cyclone intensity and ENSO. Journal of Climate,18(15), 2996–3006.Google Scholar
  2. Chan, J. C. L. (2000). Tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific associated with El Nino and La Nina Events. Journal of Climate,13, 2960–2972.Google Scholar
  3. Chen, X., Wu, L., & Zhang, J. (2011). Increasing duration of tropical cyclones over China. Geophysical Research Letters.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL046137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chia, H. H., & Ropelewski, C. F. (2002). The interannual variability in the genesis location of tropical cyclones in the northwest Pacific. Journal of Climate,15(20), 2934–2944.Google Scholar
  5. Choi, K. S., & Moon, I. J. (2012). Influence of the Western Pacific teleconnection pattern on Western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans,57, 1–16.Google Scholar
  6. Costanza, R., Pérez-Maqueo, O., Martinez, M. L., et al. (2008). The value of coastal wetlands for hurricane protection. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment,37(4), 241–249.Google Scholar
  7. Czajkowski, J., Simmons, K., & Sutter, D. (2011). An analysis of coastal and inland fatalities in landfalling us hurricanes. Natural Hazards, 59(3), 1513–1531.Google Scholar
  8. Elsner, J. B., Tsonis, A. A., & Jagger, T. H. (2006). High-frequency variability in hurricane power dissipation and its relationship to global temperature. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,87(6), 763–768.Google Scholar
  9. Emanuel, K. (2005). Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature,436(7051), 686–688.Google Scholar
  10. Farber, S. (1987). The value of coastal wetlands for protection of property against hurricane wind damage. Journal of Environmental Economics & Management,14(2), 143–151.Google Scholar
  11. Gemmer, M., Yin, Y., Luo, Y., et al. (2011). Tropical cyclones in China: County-based analysis of landfalls and economic losses in Fujian Province. Quaternary International,244(2), 169–177.Google Scholar
  12. Hallegatte, S. (2011). Uncertainties in the cost-benefit analysis of adaptation measures, and consequences for decision making. In I. Linkov & T. Bridges (Eds.), Climate (pp. 169–192). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Hirata, H., & Kawamura, R. (2014). Scale interaction between typhoons and the North Pacific subtropical high and associated remote effects during the Baiu/Meiyu season. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres,119, 5157–5170.Google Scholar
  14. Katsube, K., & Inatsu, M. (2016). Response of tropical cyclone tracks to sea surface temperature in the western North Pacific. Journal of Climate,29(5), 1955–1975.Google Scholar
  15. Kleinen, J. (2007). Historical perspectives on typhoons and tropical storms in the natural and socio-economic system of Nam Dinh (Vietnam). Journal of Asian Earth Sciences,29, 523–531.Google Scholar
  16. Klotzbach, P. J. (2006). Trends in global tropical cyclone activity over the past twenty years (1986–2005). Geophysical Research Letters, 33(10), L10805.Google Scholar
  17. Knutson, T. R., & Tuleya, R. E. (2004). Impact of CO2-induced warming on simulated hurricane intensity and precipitation: Sensitivity to the choice of climate model and convective parameterization. Journal of Climate,17(18), 3477–3495.Google Scholar
  18. Kossin, J. P., Knapp, K. R., Vimont, D. J., et al. (2007). A globally consistent reanalysis of hurricane variability and trends. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(4), L04815.Google Scholar
  19. Landsea, C. W., Harper, B. A., Hoarau, K., et al. (2006). Can we detect trends in extreme tropical cyclones? Science,313(5786), 452–454.Google Scholar
  20. Li, Y., Chen, L., & Zhang, S. (2004). Statistical characteristics of tropical cyclone making landfalls on China. Journal of Tropical Meteorology, 20(1), 14–23.Google Scholar
  21. Li, Y. B., Tam, C. Y., Huang, W. R., et al. (2016). Evaluating the impacts of cumulus, land surface and ocean surface schemes on summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western North Pacific by RegCM4. Climate Dynamics,46, 2487–2505.Google Scholar
  22. Liu, D., Pang, L., & Xie, B. (2009). Typhoon disaster in China: Prediction, prevention, and mitigation. Natural Hazards,49(3), 421–436.Google Scholar
  23. Liu, M., & Smith, J. A. (2016). Extreme Rainfall from Landfalling Tropical Cyclones in the Eastern United States: Hurricane Irene (2011). Journal of Hydrometeorology,17(11), 2883–2904.Google Scholar
  24. Mendelsohn, R., Emanuel, K., Chonabayashi, S., & Bakkensen, L. (2012). The impact of climate change on global tropical cyclone damage. Nature Climate Change, 2(3), 205–209.Google Scholar
  25. Michener, W. K., Blood, E. R., Bildstein, K. L., et al. (1997). Climate change, hurricanes and tropical storms, and rising sea level in coastal wetlands. Ecological Applications,7(3), 770–801.Google Scholar
  26. Nam, C. C., Park, D. S. R., Ho, C. H., et al. (2018). Dependency of tropical cyclone risk on track in South Korea. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences,18(12), 3225–3234.Google Scholar
  27. Nogueira, R. C., & Keim, B. D. (2010). Annual volume and area variations in tropical cyclone rainfall over the Eastern United States. Journal of Climate,23(16), 4363–4374.Google Scholar
  28. Patricola, C. M., Camargo, S. J., Klotzbach, P. J., Saravanan, R., & Chang, P. (2018). The influence of ENSO flavors on western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity. Journal of Climate,31(14), 5395–5416.Google Scholar
  29. Paul, S., Ghebreyesus, D., & Sharif, H. O. (2019). Brief communication: Analysis of the fatalities and socio-economic impacts caused by Hurricane Florence. Geosciences,9(2), 58.Google Scholar
  30. Pielke, R. A. J., Gratz, J., Landsea, C., et al. (2008). Normalized hurricane damage in the United States: 1900–2005. Natural Hazards Review,9(1), 29–42.Google Scholar
  31. Pielke, R. A. J., Rubiera, C. W., Landsea, M. L., et al. (2003). Hurricane vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean: Normalized damage and loss potentials. Natural Hazards Review,4, 101–114.Google Scholar
  32. Rappaport, E. N. (2000). Loss of life in the united states associated with recent atlantic tropical cyclones. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 81(9), 2065–2073.Google Scholar
  33. Rezapour, M., & Baldock, T. E. (2014). Classification of hurricane hazards: The importance of rainfall. Weather and Forecasting,29(6), 1319–1331.Google Scholar
  34. Schmidt, S., Kemfert, C., & Hoppe, P. (2010). The impact of socio-economics and climate change on tropical cyclone losses in the USA. Regional Environmental Change,10(1), 13–23.Google Scholar
  35. Sparks, P. R. (2003). Wind speeds in tropical cyclones and associated insurance losses. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics,91(12–15), 1731–1751.Google Scholar
  36. Stanley, A. C. (2009). Characteristics of severe Atlantic Hurricanes in the United States: 1949–2006. Natural Hazards,48, 329–337.Google Scholar
  37. Wang, B., & Zhou, X. (2008). Climate variation and prediction of rapid intensification in tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics,99(1–2), 1–16.Google Scholar
  38. Wang, X., Wu, L., Ren, F., et al. (2008). Influences of tropical cyclones on china during 1965–2004. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences,25(3), 417–426.Google Scholar
  39. Wang, Y., Wen, S., Li, X., et al. (2016). Spatiotemporal distributions of influential tropical cyclones and associated economic losses in China in 1984–2015. Natural Hazards,84, 2009–2030.Google Scholar
  40. Webster, P. J., Holland, G. J., Curry, J. A., & Chang, H. R. (2005). Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity in a warming environment. Science,309, 1844–1846.Google Scholar
  41. Wen, S., Su, B., Wang, Y., et al. (2018). Economic sector loss from influential tropical cyclones and relationship to associated rainfall and wind speed in China. Global and Planetary Change,169, 224–233.Google Scholar
  42. Wu, L., & Wang, B. (2004). Assessing impacts of global warming on tropical cyclone tracks. Climate,17, 1686–1698.Google Scholar
  43. Wu, L., Wang, B., & Geng, S. (2005). Growing typhoon influence on East Asia. Geophysical Research Letters.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL022937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xiao, F., & Xiao, Z. (2010). Characteristics of tropical cyclones in China and their impacts analysis. Natural Hazards,54(3), 827–837.Google Scholar
  45. Yin, Y. Z., Gemmer, M., Luo, Y., et al. (2010). Tropical cyclones and heavy rainfall in Fujian Province, China. Quaternary International,226, 122–128.Google Scholar
  46. Zhang, J., Wu, L., & Zhang, Q. (2013). Tropical cyclone damages in China under global warming. Journal of Tropical Meteorology,19, 120–129.Google Scholar
  47. Zhang, Q., Liu, Q., & Wu, L. (2009). Tropical cyclone damages in China 1983–2006. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,90(4), 489–495.Google Scholar
  48. Zhang, Q., Zhang, W., Chen, Y. D., & Jiang, T. (2010). Flood, drought and typhoon disasters during the last half-century in the Guangdong province. China: Natural Hazards.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-010-9611-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, School of Atmospheric PhysicsNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai)ZhuhaiChina
  3. 3.School of Geographical SciencesNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  4. 4.Edgemont Junior – Senior High SchoolNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations