Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soil, atmospheric deposition and biomonitor samples in the Meric-Ergene River Basin, Turkey

  • Asude Hanedar
  • Elçin Güneş
  • Gül KaykioğluEmail author
  • Suna Özden Çelik
  • Evren Cabi


In this study, the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in various components in the Meric-Ergene River Basin which is one of Turkey’s intensive industrialization centers and which accordingly has faced significant environmental pollution and has about 1300 industrial plants within its boundaries. In the river basin, 16 USEPA PAHs were measured in a total of 192 samples consisting of soil, lichen, pine needle and total deposition samples for 1 year to represent the four seasons at a total of 12 points in 4 different regions which were determined as intensive industrial area, industrial + residential area, agricultural area and background. According to the results obtained, the total PAH values, in all sampling points, varied between 69.6 and 1277.7 ng/g (dry wt) for soil, lichen and pine needle samples and between 0 and 937.8 ng/m2-day for the total deposition samples. The highest values were determined in the fall season for the lichen samples and industrial area. The data obtained were evaluated in terms of spatial and seasonal variations, and according to their molecular weights. The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) of exposing to soil PAHs were calculated, and maximum ILCR values were observed in industrial areas for child and adults. The diagnostic ratios were performed for determining the source, and the comparison of bioindication features was made for lichen and pine needle samples by comparing with Koa and Kow values of PAHs.


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Lichen Pine needle Meric-Ergene River Basin 



This study was supported by TUBITAK (Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) under Grant Project No. 112Y070.

Supplementary material

10668_2019_350_MOESM1_ESM.docx (31 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 31 kb)


  1. Aichner, B., Bussian, B. M., Lehnik-Habrink, P., & Hein, S. (2015). Regionalized concentrations and fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in German forest soils. Environmental Pollution, 203, 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amigo, J. M., Ratola, N., & Alves, A. (2011). Study of geographical trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pine needles. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 5988–5996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). (1995). Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.Google Scholar
  4. Augusto, S., Máguas, C., & Branquinho, C. (2013). Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses: A review. Environmental Pollution, 180, 330–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Augusto, S., Maguas, C., Matos, J., Pereira, M. J., & Branquinho, C. (2010). Lichens as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: A comparison with soil, air and pine needles. Environmental Pollution, 158, 483–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bozlaker, A., Muezzinoglu, A., & Odabasi, M. (2008). Atmospheric concentrations, dry deposition and air–soil exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an industrial region in Turkey. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 153, 1093–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Budzinski, H., Jones, I., Bellocq, J., Pierard, C., & Garrigues, P. (1997). Evaluation of sediment contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gironde estuary. Marine Chemistry, 58, 85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Capozzi, F., Di Palma, A., Adamo, P., Spagnuolo, V., & Giordano, S. (2017). Monitoring chronic and acute PAH atmospheric pollution using transplants of the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and Robinia pseudacacia leaves. Atmospheric Environment, 150, 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. CEPA. (2003). The air toxics hot spots program guidance manual for preparation of health risk assessments. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. California: California Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, S.-C., & Liao, C.-M. (2006). Health risk assessment on human exposed to environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution sources. Science of the Total Environment, 366, 112–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Choi, S. (2014). Time trends in the levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pine bark, litter, and soil after a forest fire. Science of the Total Environment, 470–471, 1441–1449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Conti, M. E., & Cecchetti, G. (2001). Biological monitoring: Lichens as bioindicators of air pollution asses-a review. Env. Poll., 114, 471–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Nicola, F., Claudia, L., MariaVittoria, P., Giulia, M., & Anna, A. (2011). Biomonitoring of PAHs by using Quercus ilex leaves: Source diagnostic and toxicity assessment. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 1428–1433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Nicola, F., Concha Graña, E., Aboal, J. R., Carballeira, A., Fernández, J. A., López Mahía, P., et al. (2016). PAH detection in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles: A fast method for biomonitoring purpose. Talanta, 153, 130–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Demircioglu, E., Sofuoglu, A., & Odabasi, M. (2011). Atmospheric concentrations and phase partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Izmir Turkey. Clean-Soil, Air, Water, 39(4), 319–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eriksson, G., Jensen, S., Kylin, H., & Strachan, W. (1989). The pine needle as a monitor of atmospheric pollution. Nature, 341, 42–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Esen, F., Cindoruk, S. S., & Tasdemir, Y. (2008). Bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an industrial site of Turkey. Environmental Pollution, 152, 461–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. EU, Europe Union. (2001). Ambient air pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), Position Paper. Luxemborg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. ISBN 92-894-2057-X.Google Scholar
  19. Fang, G., Wu, Y., Chen, M., Ho, T., Huang, S., & Rau, J. (2004). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons study in Taichung, Taiwan, during 2002–2003. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 3385–3391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fertmann, R., Tesseraux, I., Michael, S., & Neus, H. (2002). Evaluation of ambient air concentration of PAHs in Germany from 1990 to 1998. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Eniıronmental Epidemiology, 12, 115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Foan, L., Domercq, M., Bermejo, R., Santamaría, J. M., & Simon, V. (2015). Mosses as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: Comparison with total deposition and evaluation of bioconcentration factors: A year-long case-study. Chemosphere, 119, 452–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garty, J. (2001). Biomonitoring atmospheric heavy metals with lichens: Theory and application. Critical Reviews Plant Science, 20, 309–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gerdol, R., Marchesini, R., Iacumin, P., & Brancaleoni, L. (2014). Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors. Chemosphere, 108, 388–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grimalt, J. O., & Van Drooge, B. L. (2006). Polychlorinated biphenyls in mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) needles from Central Pyrenean high mountains (Catalonia, Spain). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 63, 61–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guidotti, M., Stella, D., Owezarek, M., De Marco, A., & De Simona, C. (2003). Lichens as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioaccumulators used in atmospheric pollution studies. Journal of Chromatography A, 985, 185–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guo, L., Bao, L., She, J., & Zeng, E. (2014). Significance of wet deposition to removal of atmospheric particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Guangzhou, China. Atmospheric Environment, 83, 136–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hanedar, A., Alp, K., Kaynak, B., & Avşar, E. (2014). Toxicity evaluation and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at three stations in Istanbul, Turkey. Science of the Total Environment, 488–489, 437–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hanedar, A., Güneş, E., Kaykioğlu, G., Çelik, S. Ö., & Cabi, E. (2019). Presence and distributions of POPS in soil, atmospheric deposition, and bioindicator samples in an industrial-agricultural area in Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191, 42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harner, T., & Bidleman, T. F. (1998). Octanol air partition coefficient for describing particle/gas partitioning of aromatic compounds in urban air. Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 1494–1502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harrison, R., Smith, D. J., & Luhana, L. (1996). Source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons collected from an Urban Location in Birmingham, U.K. Environmental Science and Technology, 30, 825–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holoubek, I., Korinek, P., Seda, Z., Schneiderova, E., Holoubkova, I., et al. (2000). The use of mosses and pine needles to detect persistent organic pollutants at local and regional scales. Environmental Pollution, 109, 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Klanova, J., Cupr, P., Barakova, D., Seda, Z., Andel, P., & Holoubek, I. (2009). Can pine needles indicate trends in the air pollution levels at remote sites? Environmental Pollution, 157(12), 3248–3254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Knafla, A., Phillipps, K. A., Brecher, R. W., Petrovic, S., & Richardson, M. (2006). Development of a dermal cancer slope factor for benzo[a]pyrene. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 45, 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lehndorff, E., & Schwark, L. (2004). Biomonitoring of air quality in the Cologne Conurbation using pine needles as a passive sampler e part II: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Atmospheric Environment, 38, 3793–3808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Li, G., Lang, Y., Yang, W., Peng, P., & Wang, X. (2014). Source contributions of PAHs and toxicity in reed wetland soils of Liaohe estuary using a CMB–TEQ method. Science of the Total Environment, 490, 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liao, C.-M., & Chiang, K.-C. (2006). Probabilistic risk assessment for personal exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiwanese temples. Chemosphere, 63, 1610–1619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liu, G., Zhang, G., Li, J., Li, X., Peng, X., & Qi, S. (2006). Spatial distribution and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) using semi-permeable membrane device (SPMD) and pine needles in the Pearl River Delta, South Chin. Atmospheric Environment, 40, 3134–3143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Motelay-Massei, A., Ollivon, D., Garban, B., & Chevreuil, M. (2003). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bulk deposition at a suburban site: Assessment by principal component analysis of the influence of meteorological parameters. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 3135–3146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nam, J. J., Thomas, G. O., Jaward, F. M., Steinnes, E., Gustafsson, O., & Jones, K. C. (2008). PAHs in background soils from Western Europe: Influence of atmospheric deposition and soil organic matter. Chemosphere, 70, 1596–1602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nisbet, C., & Lagoy, P. (1992). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 16, 290–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ollivon, D., Blanchoud, H., Motelay-Massei, H., & Garban, B. (2002). Atmospheric deposition of PAHs to an urban site, Paris, France. Atmospheric Environment, 36, 2891–2900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ötvös, E., Kozak, I. O., Fekete, J., Sharma, V. K., & Tuba, Z. (2004). Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mosses (Hypnum cupressiforme) in Hungary. Science of the Total Environment, 330, 89–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pankow, J. F. (1998). Further discussion of the octanol/air partition coefficient Koa as a correlating parameter for gas/particle partitioning coefficients. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 1493–1497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Park, J., Wade, T., & Sweet, S. (2001). Atmospheric distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and deposition to Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 3241–3249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Peng, C., Chen, W., Liao, X., Wang, M., Ouyang, Z., Jiao, W., et al. (2011). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soils of Beijing: Status, sources, distribution and potential risk. Environmental Pollution, 159, 802–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pereira, M. S., Heitmann, D., Reifenhäuser, W., Meire, R. O., Santos, L. S., Torres, J. P. M., et al. (2007). Persistent organic pollutants in atmospheric deposition and biomonitoring with Tillandsia usneoides (L.) in an industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro state, southeast Brazil – Part II: PCB and PAH. Chemosphere, 67(9), 1736–1745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Petry, T., Schmid, P., & Schlatter, C. (1996). The use of toxic equivalency factors in assessing occupational and environmental health risk associated with exposure to airborne mixtures of PAHs. Chemosphere, 32, 639–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Piccardo, M. T., Pala, M., Bonaccurso, B., Stella, A., Redaelli, A., Paola, G., et al. (2005). Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Pollution, 133, 293–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ravindra, K., Bencs, L., Wauters, E., Hooga, J., Deutsch, F., Roekense, D., et al. (2006). Seasonal and site-specific variation in vapour and aerosol phase PAHs over Flanders (Belgium) and their relation with anthropogenic activities. Atmospheric Environment, 40, 771–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sicre, M. A., Marty, J. C., Saliot, A., Aparico, X., Grimalt, J., & Albaigés, J. (1987). Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in different sized aerosols over Mediterranean sea: Occurrence and origin. Atmospheric Environment, 21, 2247–2259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Soclo, H. H., Garrigues, P., & Ewald, M. (2000). Origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocar- bons (PAHs) in costal marine sediments: case studies in Cotonou (Benin) and Aquitaine (France) areas. Marine Pollution Bullettin, 40, 387–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. St-Amand, A. D., Mayer, P. M., & Blais, J. M. (2009). Modeling PAH uptake by vegetation from the air using field measurements. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 4283–4288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tsapakis, M., & Stephanou, E. G. (2003). Collection of gas and particle semi-volatile organic compounds: use of an oxidant denuder to minimize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation during high-volume air sampling. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 4935–4944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. TUIK (2018, February) Turkey Statistics Institute, Population Projections, 2018–2080. ID: 30567.Google Scholar
  55. USEPA 1991 (1991) Risk assessment guidance for superfund, volume 1. Human health evaluation, manual (Part B, Development of Risk-based Preliminary Remediation Goals). EPA/540/R-92/003 Publication 9285.7-01B.Google Scholar
  56. Viskari, E. L., Holopainen, T., & Karenlampi, L. (2000). Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions–II ultrastructural changes and stomatal behaviour. Environmental Pollution, 107, 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang, Z., Chen, J., Qiao, X., Yang, P., Tian, F., & Huang, L. (2007). Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from urban to rural soils: A case study in Dalian, China. Chemosphere, 68, 965–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang, W., Simonich, S. L. M., Giri, B., Xue, M., Zhaoa, J., Chend, S., et al. (2011). Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of atmospheric bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Beijing Tianjin region, North China. Environmental Pollution, 159, 287–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang, X. P., Yao, T. D., Cong, Z. Y., Yan, X. L., Kang, S. C., & Zhang, Y. (2006). Gradient distribution of persistent organic contaminants along northern slope of central-Himalayas, China. Science of the Total Environment, 372, 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wu, Q., Wang, X., & Zhou, Q. (2014). Biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere with mosses: Performance and application. Environment International, 66, 28–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Xiao, H., & Wania, F. (2003). Is vapor pressure or the octanol–air partition coefficient a better descriptor of the partitioning between gas phase and organic matter? Atmospheric Environment, 37, 2867–2878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yuan, G., Wu, L., Sun, Y., Li, J., Li, J., & Wang, G. (2015). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of the central Tibetan Plateau, China: Distribution, sources, transport and contribution in global cycling. Environmental Pollution, 203, 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhu, X., Pfister, G., Henkelmann, B., Kotalik, J., Bernhoft, S., Fiedler, S., et al. (2008). Simultaneous monitoring of profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated air with semipermeable membrane devices and spruce needles. Environmental Pollution, 156, 461–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Engineering DepartmentTekirdag Namik Kemal University Corlu Engineering FacultyÇorluTurkey
  2. 2.Biology Department, Faculty of Arts and SciencesTekirdag Namik Kemal UniversityÇorluTurkey

Personalised recommendations