Measuring environmental, economic, and social sustainability index of tea farms in Rize Province, Turkey
- 66 Downloads
Tea farms sustainability assessment was the primary aim of this study. A set of socially, scientifically, and self-validated indicators based on the defined basic factor and established criteria were developed and used to measure the tea farms sustainability. A total of 138 tea growers, selected by stratified sampling technique, were interviewed. Various steps were executed such as application of factor analysis after standardizing the indicators to estimate their weights for aggregation them in order to measure the composite tea farms sustainability index. The results show that average farms sustainability index was 0.39, which was not up to the mark. Although the economic sustainability (0.23) was even lower than the overall sustainability index, social (0.51) and environmental (0.43) sustainability indices were higher. Furthermore, in result of k-mean cluster analysis, farmers were clustered into low (42%) and high (58%) sustainability tea farms. The comparison of these two groups demonstrated that the high-sustainability tea farmers were hiring less labor, and also applying low chemical fertilizers at their tea orchards. Regarding farm management practices, they were also good as compared to low-sustainability tea farmers in the practice of terracing, conducting soil test, and applying fertilizer. Moreover, they were significantly different in environmental sustainability than the other group. It was concluded that the economic sustainability lowers the overall sustainability, and in order to increase tea sustainability in study area the first priority should be given to the implementation of agricultural policies focusing on economic conditions of farmers. Two initial strategies of increasing economic sustainability are controlling the chemical fertilizers and employing family members instead of hiring labor. These need to be followed by other factors that lower economic sustainability.
KeywordsEnvironmental sustainability Economic sustainability Social sustainability Tea farms sustainability Indicators Composite tea farms sustainability index
- Aylangan, P. (2011). Turkish Tea, Turkish cultural foundation. Downloaded on 15 December 2016. Available at http://www.turkishculture.org/culinary-arts/turkish-tea-53.htm.
- Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2008). Sustainability indicators: Measuring the immeasurable? (2nd ed.). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Bossel, H. (1999). Indicators for sustainable development: Theory, method, applications. Winnipeg: A report to the Balaton Group, International Institute for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
- Edwards, C. A., Lal, R., Madden, P., Miller, R. H., & House, G. (1990). Sustainable agricultural systems. Chapter 1: An overview of sustainable agriculture (p. 4). St. Lucie: St. Lucie Press.Google Scholar
- Freudenberg, M. (2003). Composite indicators of country performance: A critical assessment. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, No. 2003/16. Paris: OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/405566708255.
- Gafsi, M., & Favreau, J. L. (2010). Appropriate method to assess the sustainability of organic farming systems. In 9th European IFSA symposium (Vol. 47).Google Scholar
- Gomez-Limon, J. A., & Riesgo, L. (2010). Sustainability assessment of olive grove in Andalusia: A methodological proposal. In 120th EAAE seminar “external cost of farming activities: Economic evaluation, environmental repercussions and regulatory framework”. Chania, Crete, September 2–4, 2010.Google Scholar
- Gunduz, O., Ceyhan, V., Erol, E., & Ozkaraman, F. (2011). An evaluation of farm-level sustainability of apricot farms in Malatya province of Turkey. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 9(1), 700–705.Google Scholar
- Hani, F., Gerber, T., Stämpfli, A., Porsche, H., Thalmann, C. & Studer, C. (2006). An evaluation of tea farms in Southern India with the sustainability assessment tool RISE. Symposium ID# 1053. Swiss College of Agriculture (SCA), CH–3052 Zollikofen University of Applied Sciences Bern.Google Scholar
- Harris, J. M. (2003). Sustainability and sustainable development. International society for ecological economics. Internet Encyclopaedia of Ecological Economics, 1(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
- Hataia, L. D., & Sen, C. (2008). An economic analysis of agricultural sustainability in Orissa. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 21(2), 273–282.Google Scholar
- Lopez-Ridaura, S., Van Keulen, H., Ittersum, M. K. V., & Leffelaar, P. A. (2005). Multiscale methodological framework to derive criteria and indicators for sustainability evaluation of peasant natural resource management systems. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 7, 51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nicoletti, G., Scarpetta, S., & Boylaud, O. (1999). Summary indicators of product market regulation with an extension to employment protection legislation. Economics Department working papers 226. ECO/WKP(99)18.Google Scholar
- Pinter, L., Bizikova, L., Kutics, K., & Vari, A. (2008). Developing a system of sustainability indicators for the Lake Balaton region. Tájökólogiai Lapok, 6, 271–293.Google Scholar
- RTB. (2014). Rize Ticaret Borsasi; Doğu Karadeniz Bölgesi Tarim Ürünleri Raporu. Available at http://www.rtb.org.tr/icerik/bolgesel-arastirma-ve-raporlar. Accessed 23 Sept 2018.
- Terano, R., Mohamed, Z., Shamsudin, M. N., & Abd-Latif, I. (2015). Farmers sustainability index: The case of paddy farmers in state of Kelantan, Malaysia. Journal of the International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences, 1, 55–67.Google Scholar
- ul Haq, Shamsheer, Shahbaz, P., Boz, I., Yildirim, C., & Murtaza, M. R. (2017). Exploring the determinants of technical inefficiency in mango enterprise: A case of Muzafargarh, Pakistan. Custos E Agronegocio On Line, 13(2), 218–236.Google Scholar
- Vecchione, G. (2010). EU rural policy: Proposal and application of an agricultural sustainability index. MPRA Paper No. 27032, Downloaded from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/27032/1/MPRA_paper_27032.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2018.
- WCED. (1987). Development and international economic co-operation: Environment. New York: Report of World Commission on Environment and Development.Google Scholar
- Wikipedia. (2018). Map of Rize Province, Accessed at 11 November 2018. Downloaded from https://www.google.com.tr/search?q=map+of+rize+province&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiRoeWvk9zeAhXGDcAKHfdHBiAQ_AUIDygC&biw=1271&bih=649&dpr=2#imgrc=3FXAKkQQZcI8rM.
- WSSD. (2002). Report of the world summit on sustainable development. A/CONF.199/20. Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August–4 September 2002. New York.Google Scholar
- Yamane, T. (2001). Temel Örnekleme Yöntemleri. Çevirenler: Alptekin Esin, Celal Aydın, M. Akif Bakır, Esen Gürbüzsel. Literatür Yayıncılık, İstanbul.Google Scholar
- Zhen, L., Routray, J. K., Zoebisch, M. A., Chen, A., Xie, G., & Cheng, S. (2005). Three dimensions of sustainability of farming practices in the North China Plain: A case study from Ningjin County of Shandong Province, PR China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 105, 507–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar