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Assessment of hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in the lower Vellar river basin: using Geographical Information System (GIS) and Water Quality Index (WQI)

Abstract

The lower Vellar river basin is the study site for the assessment of hydrogeochemical characters of groundwater using GIS and Water Quality Index (WQI). The study site is entirely covered by the sediment topography of alluvium and Cuddalore sandstone. The site faces the water scarcity and water quality problem when rainfall failure occurs. Under these situations, a GIS- and WQI-based groundwater quality has been deliberate in this basin. To appraise the groundwater geochemical characteristics, in total eighty samples were collected, viz., PREM (pre-monsoon) and POSTM (post-monsoon), and examined for important physicochemical (Na+, Mg+, Ca++, K+, Cl, HCO3, NO3, SO4, SiO2, TDS, EC, and pH) parameters. The results of the sample analysis and interpretation of groundwater data reveal that the maximum samples fall in Ca-Cl2, Ca-SO4 followed by Na-Cl2 water type. Gibb’s diagram shows that most samples plotted in weathering and followed by evaporation field. Percentage of sodium (Na%) results indicate that 18% samples were poor; 8.75%—permissible; and 72.5%—good category. According to SAR classification, 80% of the groundwater samples fall under C3S1 followed by C2S1 and C4S1 water type. The water quality index (WQI) shows that 70% of the samples fall good, 21.25% of the samples fall poor, and 8.75% of the samples fall excellent category. Hence, the study site is an alarming stage to become deterioration of the groundwater quality and could be problem to the public health.

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Gnanachandrasamy, G., Dushiyanthan, C., Jeyavel Rajakumar, T. et al. Assessment of hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in the lower Vellar river basin: using Geographical Information System (GIS) and Water Quality Index (WQI). Environ Dev Sustain 22, 759–789 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-018-0219-7

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Keywords

  • Groundwater quality
  • Water Quality Index
  • GIS
  • Hydrogeochemistry
  • Vellar river